Mustard greens-Aphid

Includes

Cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae)
Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae)
Turnip aphid (Hyadaphis pseudobrassicae)

Pest description, crop damage and life history

See:

Biology and life history Most species of aphids have similar life cycles. Aphid females give birth to live offspring all year without mating. When vegetable crops are not available, aphids live on a wide variety of weed hosts. In summer and fall, aphids may produce winged females and, later, winged males. They mate and produce eggs for overwintering, especially in colder climates. Otherwise, adult aphids overwinter on crops, weeds, or trees. There may be as few as two generations (the green peach aphid) or as many as 16 generations each year (the cabbage aphid), depending on the species and climate.

Pest monitoring Check fields frequently after seedling emergence. If aphids become numerous, increase frequency of sampling. Aphids often are concentrated in hot spots or near the field margin. Note the presence of any hot spots, but avoid sampling only those areas. Also, be sure to look for evidence of biological control; i.e., the presence of predators, parasites (aphid mummies), and disease. Aphid flights are most common during periods of moderate temperatures (60° to 80°F). Monitor fields particularly closely during April and May.

Management-biological control

Many parasites and predators attack aphids. Early year aphids have many natural enemies that frequently bring them under control later in the year. Among the more common predators are lady beetles and their larvae, lacewing larvae, and syrphid fly larvae. Populations of green peach aphids are reduced in winter by a parasitic fungus, Entomophthora aphidis.

Monitor the proportion of aphid mummies relative to unparasitized aphids and the numbers of predators such as lady beetles. If the proportion of mummies is increasing, or predators appear to be gaining control, and aphid populations are not yet damaging, avoid sprays that will disrupt these natural enemies if the crop is not entering a susceptible stage. Most materials available for aphid control are highly disruptive of natural enemy populations.

Management-cultural control

Destroy infested crops immediately after harvest to prevent dispersal. Destroying weed hosts late in the year may help destroy overwintering populations. Aphid populations tend to be higher in crops that are fertilized liberally with nitrogen. Roguing diseased plants early may help slow the spread of aphid-vectored diseases.

Home gardeners can use row covers or wash aphids from plants with a strong stream of water.

Management-chemical control: HOME USE

Apply to both tops and undersides of leaves.

  • acetamiprid
  • azadirachtin (neem extract)-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • bifenthrin
  • carbaryl
  • cyfluthrin
  • imidacloprid
  • lambda-cyhalothrin
  • insecticidal soap-Some formulations OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • kaolin-When applied as a spray to foliage and stems it acts as a repellent to some insect pests. Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • malathion
  • permethrin
  • plant-derived essential oils (rosemary, peppermint etc.)-These have some efficacy against aphids. Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • pyrethrins-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • zeta-cypermethrin

Management-chemical control: COMMERCIAL USE

  • acetamiprid (Assail 30SG) at 0.038 to 0.1 lb ai/a. PHI 3 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.375 lb ai/a per year or 4 applications per season.
  • alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac EC) at 0.02 to 0.025 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.075 lb ai/a per season.
  • Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol ESO) at 0.25 to 1 quart/a. PHI 0 days. REI 4 hr. OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • beta-cyfluthrin/imidacloprid (Leverage 360) at 0.07 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.1 lb ai/a beta-cyfluthrin or 0.2 lb ai/a imidacloprid per season.
  • bifenthrin (Brigade 2EC) at 0.033 to 0.1 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.4 lb ai/a per season.
  • bifenthrin/imidacloprid (Brigadier) at 0.06 to 0.095 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Limit 5 treatments after bloom. Do not exceed 0.24 lb ai/a imidacloprid and 0.5 lb ai/a bifenthrin.
  • bifenthrin + zeta-cypermethrin (Hero) at 0.04 to 0.1 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.45 lb ai/a per season.
  • Chenopodium ambrosioides extract (Requiem 25EC) at 4 to 8 pints formulated product/a. REI 4 hr. Use high rate when conditions are favorable for heavy pressure. OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • chlorantraniliprole/thiamethoxam (Voliam Flexi) at 0.1 to 0.172 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.172 lb ai of thiamethoxam or 0.2 lb ai of chlorantraniliprole per acre per growing season.
  • Chromobacterium subtsugae (Grandevo) at 0.6 to 0.9 lb ai/a per 100 gal. PHI 0 days. REI 4 hr. OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • clothianidin (Belay) at 0.05 to 0.067 lb ai/a foliar, 0.15 to 0.2 lb ai/a soil. PHI 7 days foliar, 21 days soil. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 10 days. Do not exceed 0.2 lb ai/a per season.
  • cyantraniliprole (Exirel) at 0.088 to 0.133 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 5 days. Do not exceed 0.4 lb ai/a per year.
  • cyfluthrin + imidacloprid (Leverage 2.7) at 0.08 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.17 lb ai/a cyfluthrin or 0.24 lb ai/a imidacloprid per year.
  • dimethoate (Dimethoate 4E) at 0.25 lb ai/a. PHI 14 days. REI 48 hr. Retreatment interval 9 days. Do not exceed 0.5 lb ai/a per season.
  • dinotefuran (Venom) at 0.088 to 0.131 lb ai/a PHI 1 day. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.263 lb ai/a per season.
  • flonicamid (Beleaf 50SG) at 0.062 to 0.089 lb ai/a. PHI 0 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.267 lb ai/a or three applications per season. Retreatment interval 7 days.
  • flupyradifurone (Sivanto 200SL) at 0.09 to 0.16 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 4 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.365 lb ai/a per season. Limit 3 treatments.
  • imidacloprid (Admire Pro) at 0.16 to 0.38 lb ai/a soil and 0.047 lb ai/a foliar. PHI 21 days soil; 7 days foliar. Retreatment interval 5 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.38 lb ai/a soil or 0.23 lb ai/a foliar per season.
  • imidacloprid (Provado) at 0.0475 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Allow 5 days between foliar sprays. Do not use more than 0.23 lb ai/a per season.
  • insecticidal soap (M-Pede) at 1 to 2% solution. Potassium salts of fatty acids. See label for gal/a. PHI 0 days. REI 12 hr. Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • malathion (Gowan Malathion 8) at 1.0 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Limit 3 treatments. Retreatment interval 5 days.
  • pymetrozine (Fulfill) at 0.086 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.172 lb ai/a per season. A penetrating adjuvant improves performance.
  • spirotetramat (Movento) at 0.06 to 0.08 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 24 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.16 lb ai/a per crop season.
  • thiamethoxam (Actara) at 0.023 to 0.047 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.172 lb ai/a per season.
  • thiamethoxam (Platinum) at 0.078 to 0.172 lb ai/a. PHI 30 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.172 lb ai/a per season.
  • thiamethoxam + chlorantraniliprole (Durivo) at 0.194 to 0.257 lb ai/a applied to the soil. PHI 30 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.172 lb ai of thiamethoxam or 0.2 lb ai of chlorantraniliprole per acre per growing season.
  • zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang) at 0.04 to 0.05 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.3 lb ai/a per season.