Broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower-Aphid

Includes

Cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae)
Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae)
Turnip aphid (Hyadaphis erysimi)

Pest description and crop damage The cabbage aphid is green-gray with a waxy bloom. It forms dense colonies that cannot be removed before processing or marketing. The cabbage aphid is the primary contaminant for harvested broccoli, sprout, cabbage, and cauliflower.

The turnip aphid looks very much like the cabbage aphid but lacks the waxy bloom. It tends to be more evenly distributed over plants.

The green peach aphid is slender, dark green to yellow, and lacks a waxy bloom. It is primarily an early year pest. Green peach aphid infestations may result in wilting. The green peach aphid rarely contaminates harvested broccoli, sprout, cabbage, and cauliflower.

Biology and life history

See:

Pest monitoring Check fields frequently after seedling emergence. If aphids become numerous, increase frequency of sampling. Aphids often are concentrated in hot spots or near the field margin. Note the presence of any hot spots, but avoid sampling only those areas. Also, be sure to look for evidence of biological control; i.e., the presence of predators, parasites (aphid mummies), and disease. Aphid flights are most common during periods of moderate temperatures (60° to 80°F). Monitor fields particularly closely during April and May.

Management-biological control

Many parasites and predators attack aphids. Early year aphids have many natural enemies that frequently bring them under control later in the year. Among the more common predators are lady beetles and their larvae, lacewing larvae, and syrphid fly larvae. Populations of green peach aphids are reduced in winter by a parasitic fungus, Entomophthora aphidis.

Monitor the proportion of aphid mummies relative to unparasitized aphids and the numbers of predators such as lady beetles. If the proportion of mummies is increasing, or predators appear to be gaining control, and aphid populations are not yet damaging, avoid sprays that will disrupt these natural enemies if the crop is not in a susceptible stage. Most materials available for aphid control are highly disruptive of natural enemy populations.

Management-cultural control

Destroy infested crops immediately after harvest to prevent dispersal. Destroying weed hosts late in the year may help destroy overwintering populations. Aphid populations tend to be higher in crops that are fertilized liberally with nitrogen. Roguing diseased plants early may help slow the spread of aphid-vectored diseases. Home gardeners can often get effective control by washing aphids with a strong stream of water.

Management-chemical control: HOME USE

Apply when aphid first appear; repeat at 8- to 10-day intervals.

  • acetamiprid
  • azadirachtin (neem oil)-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • Beauvaria bassiana-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use. Do not use on Brussels sprout or cauliflower.
  • bifenthrin
  • carbaryl
  • cyfluthrin
  • cyhalothrin
  • esfenvalerate-Do not use on Brussels sprout.
  • gamma-cyhalothrin
  • imidacloprid
  • lambda-cyhalothrin
  • insecticidal soap-Some formulations OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • malathion
  • permethrin
  • plant essential oils and extracts (such as clove, garlic and rosemary oils)-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • pyrethrins (often combined with other ingredients)-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • spinosad-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • zeta-cypermethrin

Management-chemical control: COMMERCIAL USE

  • acephate (Acephate 90WDG) at 0.5 to 1.0 lb ai/a. PHI 14 days. REI 24 hr. Do not exceed 2 lb ai/a per season. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not feed trimmings to livestock or allow animals to graze in treated areas. Brussels sprout and cauliflower only.
  • acetamiprid (Assail 30SG) at 0.038 to 0.075 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.375 lb ai/a per year. Do not exceed five applications per season. Retreatment interval 7 days.
  • alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac EC) at 0.02 to 0.025 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.075 lb ai/a per season.
  • Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol ESO) at 0.25 to 1 quart/a. REI 4 hr. PHI 0 days. OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • beta-cyfluthrin/imidacloprid (Leverage 360) at 0.07 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.1 lb ai/a beta-cyfluthrin or 0.2 lb ai/a imidacloprid per season.
  • bifenthrin (Sniper, Brigade WSB) at 0.033 to 0.1 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.5 lb ai/a per year. Do not exceed five applications after bloom. Retreatment interval 7 days.
  • bifenthrin/imidacloprid (Brigadier) at 0.06 to 0.095 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.24 lb ai/a imidacloprid and 0.24 lb ai/a bifenthrin as a foliar application. Retreatment interval 7 days. Maximum 5 treatments only after bloom.
  • bifenthrin/zeta-cypermethrin (Hero) at 0.04 to 0.1 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.45 lb/a per season. Limit 5 applications after bloom.
  • borate complex (Prev-Am Ultra) as 0.8% solution. REI 12 hr. Spray to complete coverage. Retreatment interval 7 days. OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • Chenopodium ambrosioides extract (Requiem 25EC) at 4 to 8 pints formulated product per acre. REI 4 hr. Limit 10 applications. Use high rate when conditions are favorable for heavy pressure. OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • chlorantraniliprole/lambda-cyhalothrin (Voliam Xpress) at 0.059 to 0.088 lb ai/a (suppression only). PHI 3 days. REI 24 hr. Retreatment interval 5 days. Do not exceed 0.18 lb ai of lambda-cyhalothrin or 0.2 lb ai of chlorantraniliprole per acre per growing season.
  • chlorantraniliprole/thiamethoxam (Voliam Flexi) at 0.1 to 0.175 lb ai/a. PHI 3 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.172 lb ai of thiamethoxam or 0.2 lb ai of chlorantraniliprole per acre per growing season.
  • chlorantraniliprole/thiamethoxam (Durivo) at 0.195 to 0.257 lb ai/a applied to the soil. PHI 30 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed a total of 0.172 lb ai of thiamethoxam products or 0.2 lb ai of chlorantraniliprole per acre per growing season.
  • chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 75WG) at 0.5 to 1 lb ai/a. PHI 21 days. REI 24 hr (3 days for cauliflower). Do not exceed 3 treatments per season. Retreatment interval 10 days.
  • chlorpyrifos/gamma-cyhalothrin (Cobalt) at 0.26 to 0.38 lb ai/a. PHI 21 days. REI 24 hr. Limit 3 applications of chlorpyrifos products. Retreatment interval 10 days. Do not exceed 2.25 lb ai/a per year. Brussels sprout only.
  • clothianidin (Belay) at 0.05 to 0.067 lb ai/a foliar or at 0.15 to 0.2 lb ai/a soil applied. PHI 7 days foliar, 21 days soil. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.2 lb ai/a per season. Foliar retreatment interval 7 days.
  • Chromobacterium subtsugae (Grandevo) at 0.6 to 0.9 lb ai/a per 100 gal. PHI 0 days. REI 4 hr. OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • cyfluthrin/imidacloprid (Leverage 2.7) at 0.08 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.17 lb ai/a cyfluthrin or 0.24 lb/a imidacloprid per season.
  • cyantraniliprole (Exirel) at 0.088 to 0.133 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 5 days. Do not exceed 0.4 lb ai/a per year.
  • cypermethrin (Holster) at 0.05 to 0.1 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.6 lb ai/a per season.
  • dimethoate (Dimethoate 400) at 0.25 to 0.5 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days broccoli and cauliflower; 10 days Brussels sprout. REI 48 hr; 72 hr where rainfall is below 25 inches per year. Do not exceed 1.5 lb ai/a per season. Retreatment interval 7 days. Not registered for use on cabbage.
  • dinotefuran (Scorpion 35SL) at 0.05 to 0.18 lb ai/a as foliar spray, at 0.23 to 0.27 lb ai/a as soil treatment. PHI 1 day for foliar; 21 days for soil. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.266 lb ai/a foliar or 0.532 lb ai/a soil per season. Suppression only.
  • flonicamid (Beleaf 50SG) at 0.062 to 0.089 lb ai/a. PHI 0 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.267 lb ai/a per season. Limit 3 applications per year. Retreatment interval 7 days.
  • flupyradifurone (Sivanto 200SL) at 0.09 to 0.16 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.365 lb ai/a per season. Limit 3 treatments per season.
  • imidacloprid (Admire Pro) at 0.16 to 0.38 lb ai/a soil application or at 0.047 lb ai/a foliar. PHI foliar 7 days; soil 21 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.38 lb ai/a soil or 0.23 lb ai/a foliar per year. Retreatment interval 5 days.
  • imidacloprid (Provado, Prey) at 0.05 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Do not use more than 0.23 lb ai/a per year. Retreatment interval 5 days.
  • insecticidal soap (M-Pede) at 1 to 2% solution. Potassium salts of fatty acids. See label for rate. PHI 0 days. REI 12 hr.
  • lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior II) at 0.02 to 0.03 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 24 hr. Retreatment interval 5 days. Do not exceed 0.24 lb ai/a per year.
  • lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam (Endigo ZC) at 0.064 to 0.072 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 24 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.24 lb ai of lambda-cyhalothrin or 0.172 lb ai/a of thiamethoxam per season.
  • malathion (Malathion 8) at 1.25 lb ai/a. PHI 2 days for broccoli, Brussels sprout, cauliflower; 7 days for cabbage. REI 48 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Limit 2 treatments per year.
  • naled (Dibrom 8) at 0.94 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 48. Do not exceed 9.4 lb ai/a per year. Retreatment interval 7 days. Limit 5 applications.
  • oxydemeton methyl (MSR Spray Concentrate) at 0.375 to 0.5 lb ai/a for broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprout and at 0.375 to 0.75 lb ai/a for cabbage. PHI 7 days for broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower; 10 days for Brussels sprout. REI 7 days (see label). Limit 3 applications per year.
  • pymetrozine (Fulfill) at 0.086 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. A penetrative adjuvant may improve control. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.17 lb ai/a per season.
  • spirotetramat (Movento) at 0.06 to 0.08 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 24 hr. Reentry interval 7 days. Do not exceed 3 applications per year. thiamethoxam (Actara) at 0.023 to 0.047 lb ai/a. PHI 0 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.172 lb ai/a per season.
  • thiamethoxam (Platinum) at 0.078 to 0.172 lb ai/a soil applied. PHI 30 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.172 lb ai/a per season. Apply to the soil as in-furrow spray, band application, drench, shanked or with irrigation.
  • zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang) at 0.04 to 0.05 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.3 lb ai/a per year.