Broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower-Diamondback moth

Plutella xylostella

Pest description, crop damage and life history

See:

Pest monitoring Natural enemies and insecticides applied to control other pests keep the diamondback moth under satisfactory control in most fields, but keep records of diamondback moth as you monitor for other caterpillars. Adult moths frequently migrate from fields being harvested or disked under.

In Minnesota, action thresholds for diamondback moth in cabbage are: Where diamondback moth is the primary insect pest (usually early-year), before cupping, treat with Bacillus thuringiensis if 50% of plants are infested with five or more larvae each. After cupping, treat if 10% of plants are infested with one or more larvae each.

An action threshold for diamondback contamination of broccoli heads has not been established in Oregon. If fourth-instar larvae are on leaves when the broccoli head elongates, an early insecticide spray is justified to prevent larvae from moving up into the developing broccoli heads and forming their pupae. Preharvest clean-up sprays do not remove pupae from broccoli heads once they are formed.

Management-biological control

Natural enemies, including an ichneumid wasp and the egg parasite Trichogramma pretiosum, often effectively control diamondback moth in California. Therefore, take into account the level of parasitism when making control decisions. Clearly, Bt is much easier on the beneficial insects, and its use, when needed, helps conserve the beneficial insect complex.

Management-chemical control: HOME USE

  • acetamiprid
  • azadirachtin (neem oil)-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • bifenthrin
  • carbaryl
  • cyfluthrin
  • cyhalothrin
  • esfenvalerate-Do not use on Brussels sprout.
  • gamma-cyhalothrin
  • insecticidal soap-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • lambda-cyhalothrin
  • malathion
  • permethrin
  • plant essential oils (rosemary, etc.)-Some have demonstrated efficacy against lepidopteran larvae. Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • pyrethrins (often combined with other ingredients)-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • spinosad-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • zeta-cypermethrin

Management-chemical control: COMMERCIAL USE

  • acephate (Acephate 90WDG) at 1.0 lb ai/a. PHI 14 days. REI 24 hr. Do not exceed 2 lb ai/a per season. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not feed trimmings to livestock or allow animals to graze in treated areas. Brussels sprout and cauliflower only.
  • alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac EC) at 0.014 to 0.025 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.075 lb ai/a per season.
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Javelin) at 0.12 to 1.5 lb/a. PHI 0 days. REI 4 hr. Slow acting. May need multiple applications. Add an appropriate spreader-sticker to enhance control. Most effective on small larvae. Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid XL) at 0.019 to 0.025 lb ai/a (larvae only). PHI 0 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.1 lb ai/a per season.
  • bifenthrin (Brigade WSB, Sniper) at 0.033 to 0.1 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.5 lb ai/a per year. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 5 applications after bloom.
  • bifenthrin/imidacloprid (Brigadier) at 0.06 to 0.095 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.24 lb ai/a imidacloprid and 0.5 lb ai/a bifenthrin. Retreatment interval 7 days. Maximum 5 treatments only after bloom.
  • bifenthrin + zeta-cypermethrin (Hero) at 0.04 to 0.1 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.45 lb/a per season. Limit 5 applications after bloom.
  • borate complex (Prev-AM Ultra) at 0.4% solution. REI 12 hr. Spray to complete retreatment interval coverage. 7 days. OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • Burkholderia spp. (Venerate XC) at 1 to 8 quarts/a product. PHI 0 days. REI 4 hr. OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • carbaryl (Sevin 4F) at 1 to 2 lb ai/a. PHI 3 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 6 lb ai/a per crop. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 4 treatments per year. Toxic in aquatic habitats. Latex-based formulations, such as Sevin XLR Plus, are less hazardous to bees.
  • chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) at 0.045 to 0.098 lb ai/a at planting; via drip irrigation; as foliar. PHI 3 days. REI 4 hr. Retreatment interval 3 days for foliar and 10 days for drip. Do not exceed 0.2 lb ai/a per season. Consult label for details.
  • chlorantraniliprole/lambda-cyhalothrin (Voliam Xpress) at 0.059 to 0.088 lb ai/a. PHI 3 days. REI 24 hr. Retreatment interval 5 days. Do not exceed 0.24 lb ai of products containing lambda-cyhalothrin or 0.2 lb ai of chlorantraniliprole-containing foliar products per acre per growing season.
  • chlorantraniliprole/thiamethoxam (Voliam Flexi) at 0.1 to 0.175 lb ai/a. PHI 3 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed a total of 14 oz of Voliam Flexi or 0.172 lb ai of thiamethoxam-containing products or 0.2 lb ai of chlorantraniliprole-containing products per acre per growing season.
  • chlorantraniliprole/thiamethoxam (Durivo) at 0.195 to 0.257 lb ai/a applied to the soil. PHI 30 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed a total of 13 fl oz of Durivo or 0.172 lb ai of thiamethoxam-containing products or 0.2 lb ai of chlorantraniliprole-containing products per acre per growing season.
  • chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 75WG) at 0.5 to 1 lb ai/a. PHI 21 days. REI 24 hr (but 3 days for cauliflower). Do not exceed 3 treatments per season. Toxic to fish.
  • Chromobacterium subtsugae (Grandevo) at 0.3 to 0.9 lb ai/a per 100 gal. PHI 0 days. REI 4 hr. OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • cryolite (Kryocide) at 7.7 to 15.4 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days for broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprout, and 14 days for cabbage. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 92 lb ai/a per season. OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • cyantraniliprole (Exirel) at 0.045 to 0.088 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 5 days. Limit 6 treatments per year. Do not exceed 0.4 lb ai/a per year.
  • cyfluthrin (Tombstone) at 0.038 to 0.05 lb ai/a (larvae only). PHI 0 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.2 lb ai/a per season. Toxic to bees.
  • emamectin benzoate (Proclaim) at 0.008 to 0.015 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.09 lb ai/a per season. Do not allow livestock to graze in treated areas.
  • flubendiamide (Synapse WG) at 0.045 to 0.075 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.225 lb ai/a per season. Retreatment interval 5 days.
  • flubendiamide + buprofenzin (Vetica) at 0.21 to 0.42 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.83 lb ai/a per season. Retreatment interval 7 days. Limit 2 treatments per crop.
  • gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare) at 0.01 to 0.015 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 24 hr. Do not exceed 0.12 lb ai/a per season. Toxic to bees.
  • indoxacarb (Avaunt) at 0.065 lb ai/a. PHI 3 days. REI 12 hr. Use of wetting agent recommended. Allow at least 3 days between applications. Do not exceed 0.26 lb ai/a per year. Insects stop feeding soon after application, but 3 to 4 days are required for maximum effect on lepidoptera larvae.
  • lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior II) at 0.02 to 0.03 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 24 hr. Retreatment interval 5 days. Do not exceed 0.24 lb ai/a per year.
  • lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam (Endigo ZC) at 0.064 to 0.072 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 24 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.24 lb ai of lambda-cyhalothrin or 0.172 lb ai/a of thiamethoxam per season.
  • methomyl (Lannate SP) at 0.45 to 0.9 lb ai/a. PHI 3 days for Brussels sprout, broccoli, and cauliflower, 1 day for cabbage. REI 48 hr. Do not annually exceed 5.4 lb ai/a for Brussels sprout, 6.3 lb ai/a for broccoli, or 7.2 lb ai/a for cabbage and cauliflower. Add a surfactant to improve coverage.
  • naled (Dibrom) at 0.94 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 48 hr. Do not exceed 9.4 lb ai/a per year. Retreatment interval 7 days. Limit 5 applications.
  • novaluron (Rimon EC) at 0.039 to 0.078 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.156 lb ai/a per season.
  • permethrin (Permethrin) at 0.05 to 0.2 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.8 lb ai/a per year on broccoli nor 0.4 lb ai/a per year on cauliflower, cabbage and Brussel sprout.
  • spinetoram (Radiant SC) at 0.039 to 0.078 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 4 hr. Retreatment interval 4 days. Do not exceed six applications or 0.266 lb ai/a per season. Do not apply to seedling cole crops grown for transplant within a greenhouse, shade house, or field plot.
  • spinosad (Success, Entrust SC) at 0.023 to 0.063 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 4 hr. Treat eggs at hatch and small larvae. Do not exceed three times in a 30-day period or six applications or 0.45 lb ai/a per crop. Entrust SC is OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang) at 0.028 to 0.05 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.3 lb ai/a per year. Retreatment interval 7 days.