The author acknowledges Jon Umble and Glenn Fisher for significant contributions to previous revisions of this chapter.
Garden symphylans (Scutigerella immaculata Newport) (GS) are small, white, centipede-like soil arthropods which infest many home gardens and agricultural soils in western Oregon and Washington. They feed on sprouting seeds, roots and other subterranean plant parts. Economic damage occurs from direct feeding on roots, rhizomes and tubers from establishment through plant maturity. Seedling death, poor growth, stunted plants, reduced vigor and yield reduction result. Chronic feeding on the roots of both annual and perennial plants reduces a plant’s ability to acquire water and nutrients. This results in a poor root system that manifests as general stunting and distortion of plants as well as increased susceptibility to plant pathogens. Sampling and control of GS is complicated by daily and seasonal vertical movement in the soil which is influenced by soil moisture, temperature, time of day, season, crop stage and their internally originating feeding cycles.
Selection of appropriate tactics to manage GS is largely determined by the cropping system (no-till versus tillage), soil type and structure, and availability and use of soil applied insecticides.
Conventional growers, organic growers, and small scale gardeners often approach symphylan management from different perspectives, primarily due to economic and scale dependent factors. However, in all systems, effective management stems from accurate identification of GS and the damage they cause, a general knowledge of their ecology, sampling methods and control strategies. Correct diagnosis of a GS problem is sometimes tricky, since damage may be exhibited in a number of forms and GS are not always easy to find when damage is observed.
Garden symphylans are not insects, but members of the class Symphyla. Several species occur in Oregon, but the GS (S. immaculata) is the primary species that causes crop damage in the U.S. GS are by far the most common symphyla species found in Oregon agricultural systems.
Garden symphylans are small whitish “centipede-like” fast-moving creatures that measure about 0.25 inch long when mature. They have 6 to 12 pairs of legs (depending on age) which make them easy to differentiate from common soil insects which only have 3 pairs of legs. Though their color may vary depending on what they have eaten, they are generally whiter and smaller than true centipedes, which are also soil arthropods with many pairs of legs (one pair per body segment) and make quick movements. Millipedes are generally slower moving soil arthropods, with two pairs of legs on each body segment.
Garden symphylan biology
Eggs, immatures, and adults can be found together throughout most of the year. Temperature plays a key role in regulating oviposition, and the greatest numbers of eggs are most commonly deposited in the spring and fall. Eggs are pearly white to tan, spherical with hexagonal shaped ridges, and laid in clusters. Egg incubation period is from 25 to 40 days under typical spring soil temperatures in western Oregon. First instars emerge from the egg with six pairs of legs. Newly hatched GS resemble springtails. The GS has an exoskeleton and, like an insect, sheds it (molts) periodically to grow and enlarge body size. Each of the six subsequent molts results in the addition of a pair of legs and antennal segments. Total time from egg to sexually mature adult (seventh instar) is about 2 to 3 months during typical spring soil temperatures in western Oregon. Two complete generations per year can occur.
Occurrence and movement
Garden symphylans are generally a problem in irrigated crops grown on alluvial soils with very good soil structure. Within these soils, GS tend to occur in “hotspots” encompassing a few square feet to several acres. Hotspots often remain consistent from year to year with little change in populations and only minor lateral spread.
Within a favorable soil habitat GS can migrate from the soil surface to a depth of over 3 feet. The soil profile, structure, composition and water holding capacity determines the depth to which GS migrate. Vertical migration is primarily related to interactions among moisture, temperature, crop stage and endogenous feeding cycles. A general understanding of these interactions is important both for timing and interpreting sampling efforts, and for selecting management tactics.
Garden symphylans tend to aggregate in the top 6 inches of soil when the soil is moist and warm in the spring and fall and tend to form a circular pattern covering a few feet to a number of acres. They move to deeper soil strata during July and August, though can stay at the surface if sufficient moisture is present and no plants are growing. Garden symphylans migrate to the root zone to feed, then return to the deeper strata to molt, evidenced by the large number of molted skins that may be observed in these strata. Since migration is not entirely synchronized within a population, GS are usually present throughout the habitable portion of the soil profile. Presence of GS in the surface soil may also be influenced by other variables that impede movement, such as tillage and compaction from heavy objects (such as tractor tires).
Many of the difficulties in effectively managing GS result from unknowns concerning the density and location of populations in a field. Sampling, although often time-consuming, can provide information critical to managing populations effectively. For annual crops, sampling is commonly conducted in April, May, or June, prior to planting. In general, the later in the spring that sampling occurs, the more GS will be found in the soil. Samples that include crop or weed roots generally contain more root-feeding GS than those taken in bare soil. The type and extent of sampling may vary depending on the site conditions (e.g., vegetation, size of area, cropping history), and whether populations have been historically problematic in certain areas of a site.
Three main sampling methods are used: baiting methods, soil sampling methods, and indirect sampling methods. Each method has benefits and drawbacks, and the selection of a sampling method will vary depending on the objectives of the sampling (e.g., detection vs. precise population density estimation), time of year, and site conditions.
Part of the difficulty in sampling is a result of the patchy spatial distribution of GS populations. It is important to be aware that an individual sample unit count provides information about a local region within which that sample unit was taken. Counts will often vary from zero to more than 50 GS per sample unit (i.e., soil core or bait). To obtain information about the spatial patterns of the population, sample units are often taken in a grid pattern. Areas with different cropping histories are generally sampled independently.
In most cases, sampling only measures the density of GS in the surface soil. Therefore, sampling should only be conducted when GS are within this region. The best sampling conditions are, generally, when the soil is warm and moist. Sampling within 3 weeks after major tillage, such as disking, plowing, or spading may not reflect the true population because GS often have not had ample time to reestablish in the surface soil.
To detect or identify a GS problem in a crop, bait for GS in suspected areas within 3 weeks of planting. To sample seedlings or established plants, dig them up in the early morning when GS are close to the soil surface. Inspect their roots and the soil around the roots. They may also be present in roots of grassy weeds in the area.
Soil sampling is the standard/historic method for estimating how many GS are in a field (i.e., approximate number of GS/unit of soil, or population density estimate). Sample unit sizes vary; the most common soil sample units are 6 x 6 x 12 inches (length, width, depth) or cores of 2.5 inches in diameter by 6- to 12-inch depth. When soil samples are taken, the soil from each sample unit is usually placed on a dark piece of plastic or cloth where the aggregates are broken apart and the GS are counted. Sampling is usually conducted when GS are present in the top 6 to 12 inches of the root zone.
Bait samples are generally much faster to take than soil samples, but they are also more variable and more sensitive to factors such as soil moisture, temperature, and presence of vegetation. To bait sample, one-half of a sliced potato is placed on the soil surface and sheltered with a protective cover (e.g., white pot or 4-inch PVC cap). Baits are generally checked one to three days after placement. Baits are checked by lifting the bait and counting first the GS on the soil, and secondly the GS on the bait. During warm and/or dry conditions, baits are generally checked one to two days after placement as counts decrease if baits are left out for multiple days. In cooler conditions, baits are commonly left out for three to five days. Bait sampling works very well for some applications, though it cannot be used under all conditions. Baiting works best at least two to three weeks after tillage, when the soil has stabilized but before plants are well established. When baiting works well it is a very useful tool, but numerous factors influence this method. Therefore, soil samples should always be taken along with baits in order to confirm the presence/absence of GS.
Plant growth can sometimes be a useful indirect measure of GS populations and is often a good starting point for assessing GS populations. Indirect measures, however, should never be used without some direct sampling to confirm the presence of GS.
Determining the number of samples
Sampling requirements will often vary by site, depending on factors such as cropping history and time of year. Sampling involves establishing a balance between the need to be confident about estimates of the number of GS present (implying a large number of samples) and not investing excessive time and energy into the sampling endeavor (implying a small number of samples).
Follow these guidelines for determining the sample size:
- Sampling for low population densities (e.g., early in the spring or of highly susceptible crops) requires a greater number of sample units (e.g., 100+) than sampling for high population density (e.g., 30 GS/foot). Ten samples may be enough to confirm that a high population density exists.
- As the variability of the sampling method increases, so does the number of sample units required. Since the baiting method is more variable than the soil sampling method, two to three times more bait than soil sample units are required.
- For estimation of “economic” population densities in moderately susceptible crops, at least 35 soil sample units, or at least 50 bait units, are commonly used. Depending on the size of the field, and the time of year, considerably more sample units are sometimes used.
Management decisions, such as those regarding pesticide applications and the intensity of tillage, are sometimes made based on pre-plant GS population density estimates. Owing largely to the difficulty in sampling and the numerous crops to which GS are pests, action thresholds for individual crops are not well developed. The relationship between GS population density (estimated by sampling methods) and crop health is often influenced by a number of factors, including tillage intensity, crop species, planting date, and crop stage.
In the field, noticeable damage has often been observed if populations exceed an average of five to ten GS per cubic foot (or 1 to 2 GS per 6 x 6 x 12 inch sample) in moderately to highly susceptible crops, such as broccoli, squash, spinach, and cabbage. In conventional cropping systems, pesticides are often applied to susceptible crops if populations exceed three GS per cubic foot. In more tolerant crops, such as potato and small grains, GS feeding may not lead to significant damage, even at considerably higher population densities.
Management and control
For management purposes it is important to make a distinction between tactics that may decrease GS population and those that may reduce crop damage but not necessarily reduce pest populations. In most cases, effective GS management involves establishing a balance between these two tactics. It is important to note that in most cases little can be done without replanting after damage is observed. Sampling is, therefore, important in determining the proper course of action.
Tactics for population reduction
No simple, inexpensive, and completely reliable method of controlling GS has been developed. No method will eradicate GS from a site, and the effect of most tactics will not last longer than one to three years. Very little is known about symphylan population dynamics in agroecosystems due to the complexity of their movements up and down in the soil profile. Many control tactics have been successful in some cases but unsuccessful in very similar situations.
Tillage is probably the oldest control tactic used and is still one of the most effective. Tillage can physically crush GS, thus reducing populations. Tillage may also decrease populations of key GS predators such as centipedes and predaceous mites. However, in annual crops, benefits of increased predator populations in reduced tillage systems have not been shown to be as effective as tillage in decreasing GS populations. In general, for most effective control, till when the GS are in the surface soil, and when soil moisture allows preparation of a fine see bed. Since only a portion of the population is in the surface horizon, tillage never provides complete control; however, surface populations are commonly significantly lower for at least two to three weeks after tillage. Research suggests that symphylans are more often associated with unbroken down organic matter with good soil structure rather than in compact or sandy soils. There is some evidence of reducing populations and injury by packing down the soil surface after planting; and flooding areas for 2 to 3 weeks.
In conjunction with tillage, pesticides are used to manage GS. Plant protection is probably achieved by direct mortality as well as by repelling GS from the root zone. The use of pesticides has been effective to some degree in conventional systems, but many growers still have perennial problems with symphylans. Pesticides are most effective if applied before planting as broadcast and incorporated applications. Banded/incorporated applications may provide acceptable protection for some crops. In some perennial crops, such as hops, post-plant pesticide applications can reduce GS sufficiently to promote plant vigor. Fumigants, organophosphate, and carbamate pesticides have historically been the most effective, but many are no longer registered for GS in many crops. Pyrethroid pesticides generally do not generally provide as high a level of control. Soil-applied organophosphate insecticides (e.g., Mocap, Lorsban) usually protect crops sufficiently from GS for the production of an annual crop. Soil fumigation, when properly performed, can reduce symphylan populations enough to allow 3 years or more of crop production with no additional control efforts during that period. Refer to individual crop sections for current registrations.
Insecticide registration is continually changing: always check specific insecticide labels for current registered uses. The following may have registered insecticides for symphylan control: asparagus, snap beans, table beets, blueberry, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, sweet corn, cucumber, garlic, peppers, potatoes, rhubarb, spinach, sugar beets, hops, mint, strawberry, silage and feed corn, clover, grass seed, radish seed, sugar beet seed, home garden vegetables, home garden strawberries, and home landscape plants.
Crop rotation may partially explain seemingly sudden shifts in GS populations. While GS feed on a wide range of plants, and can even persist in fallow soil, plants vary greatly in their suitability for GS population development. Populations have been shown to decrease significantly in potato crops, even allowing subsequent cultivation in rotation of susceptible crops. Though at this point no other crops have shown to be nearly as effective as potato, numbers have also been found to be lower after a spring oat (‘Monida’) winter cover crop than after a mustard (‘Martiginia’), barley (‘Micah’), or rye (‘Wheeler’) winter cover crop. Mustard and spinach crops have been shown to be very good hosts, and may lead to increasing populations in some cases.
Little information is available on the effect of natural enemies on symphylan populations, which include fungal pathogens, predaceous mites, ground beetles, centipedes, and spiders.
Tactics for crop damage reduction
Most plants can tolerate some level of GS feeding during all or part of the growing season, and numerous tactics can be used to grow healthy crops successfully in garden infested soil. These tactics can be classified as those aimed at 1) reducing crop damage under high GS populations and 2) reducing the number of GS on crop roots during establishment, when plants are often most susceptible.
Susceptibility to GS feeding can vary dramatically among different soil types, plant species and crop cultivars. Generally, smaller seeded crops tend to be more susceptible than larger seeded crops. Commonly damaged crops include broccoli and other cole crops, spinach, beets, onions, carrots, corn, and squash. For some crops (e.g. squash), damage can be reduced by increasing the plant density. This can dilute the number of GS per plant and increase survival of young seedlings during highly sensitive stages. The stand can be thinned after establishment, if needed. Beans and potatoes are rarely damaged even under high GS populations. Perennial crops, such as strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, hops, and bare root trees can also be damaged, particularly during establishment. Within a crop, susceptibility is often related to the stage of the crop planted. For example, direct-seeded tomatoes are generally more susceptible than transplants. Broccoli transplants, conversely, often fail to establish under high GS populations.
Garden symphylans are quite active and surprisingly mobile for their size, moving vertically and horizontally through the soil profile. They rely on soil pores and channels made by roots and other soil organisms, in order to move through the soil. Therefore, access to roots is strongly correlated with soil structure, bulk density, or “fluffiness” of the soil and pore connectivity. Some tactics focus on temporarily reducing the number of GS in the surface soil, then planting, thus allowing these plants to establish while GS densities are low.
Tillage is an important tactic for decreasing populations in the surface soil. Along with directly killing garden symphylans, tillage breaks apart soil aggregates, modifying soil pores and pore connectivity. The effects of tillage may vary with the type of implements used. In general, the more disruptive the tillage the greater effect it will have on GS movement and feeding. Plowing or disking, followed by thorough preparation of a fine seedbed with a rototiller or roterra, often reduces surface feeding GS populations for two to three weeks. Light rolling, with a landscaping roller or similar implement, is used under some conditions to reduce the size and/or number of macropores, thereby restricting GS movement.