Brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys)
Consperse stink bug (Euschistus conspersus)
Green stink bug (Chinavia hilaris)
Pest description and crop damage Adult stink bugs are all shield-shaped, with a triangle-shaped section in the middle of their backs. They are generally up to about 0.5 to 0.6 inch long. The name stink bug refers to the strong odor the insects can emit if alarmed.
The consperse and green stink bugs are native pests, and the brown marmorated stink bug is an invasive pest that is an increasing problem in apples in some regions of the PNW.
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: An Emerging Threat to Pacific Northwest Agriculture
The adult consperse stink bug is pale brown, yellow underneath with red antennae. The adult green stink bug is bright green. Nymphs are similar in shape to the adults and come in a variety of colors. Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) is characterized by white bands on the coal-colored antennae and legs; a distinct brown "marbled" color on the back that consists of flecks of different brown colors; red eyes; and an underside that may be cream, pink, red, yellow or green. Stink bugs cause damage to plants by sucking sap from buds, leaves, stems or fruits. Cat-facing damage on fruit indicates early season damage. Late season damage may be difficult to detect and worsens in storage. Areas of corky cells will be apparent beneath the skin of the fruit, and these will brown with oxidation. Stink bug damage can superficially resemble the physiological disorder known as bitter pit, but stink bug damage tends to originate within 1 cm of the fruit surface, while bitter pit damage can occur throughout the fruit. Note that chemical controls tend to be very disruptive to orchard natural enemies.
Biology and life history Native stink bug adults overwinter in groundcover. They feed early in the season on weeds and may move later into other host plants. Stink bug damage is worst in dry summers when alternative hosts are dried up. BMSB adults overwinter in human structures including homes, shops and outbuildings. Rock outcrops, leaf litter, and dead standing timber may also be used as overwintering sites for BMSB. BMSB move out from overwintering sites into orchards in the spring where they may begin to reproduce. They may also immigrate in from forest or riparian borders, or other crops throughout the growing season.
Egg parasitoids attack native stink bug eggs. Parasitic flies (Tachinidae) attack native stink bug nymphs and adults and lay eggs on them. The egg hatches and the fly larva then penetrates the host stink bug and consumes it from the inside. Native stink bug egg parasitoids and parasitic flies have little effect on BMSB, but an adventive egg parasitoid called samurai wasp (Trissolcus japonicus) is now establishing across the PNW. Predators of different life stages include lacewings, ladybird beetles, ground beetles, web-making spiders, praying mantids and others. Orchard practices that conserve natural enemies will benefit stink bug management.
For native stink bugs: manage weedy vegetation within and around the orchard (especially blackberry, mustard and radish). Do not mow cover crops or weeds when stink bugs are present since mowing may cause bugs to disperse to the fruit trees. Home orchardists can use mesh or paper bags to protect fruit from damage. Home orchardists may also be able to hand-remove stink bugs and egg masses from trees.
Management-chemical control: HOME USE
Spring and summer
- azadirachtin (neem oil)-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
- carbaryl-Highly toxic to bees.
- esfenvalerate-Highly toxic to bees.
- gamma-cyhalothrin-Highly toxic to bees.
- imidacloprid-Soil drenches may have residual activity in woody plants lasting for 12 or more months. If short-term management is the goal, consider other approaches.
- insecticidal soap-Some formulations OMRI-listed for organic use.
- kaolin clay-Applied as a spray to leaves, stems, and fruit, it acts as a repellant to target pests. Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
- lambda-cyhalothrin-Highly toxic to bees.
- permethrin-Highly toxic to bees.
- pyrethrins (often as a mix with other ingredients)-Highly toxic to bees. Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
- zeta-cypermethrin-Highly toxic to bees.
Management-chemical control: COMMERCIAL USE
Late spring and summer
- beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid) 2 to 2.4 fl oz in up to 100 gal water per application. Do not exceed 2.8 fl oz/A per season. REI 12 hr. PHI 14 days. [Group 3]
- clothianidin (Belay) at 4 to 6 fl oz/A. Do not apply more than 12 fl oz of Belay per acre per season. REI 12 hr. PHI 7 days. Do not feed or allow livestock to graze on cover crops from treated orchards. [Group 4A]
- cyfluthrin (Tombstone) at 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz/A in no less than 100 gal water per application. Do not exceed 2.8 fl oz/A per growing season. REI 12 hr. PHI 7 days. [Group 3A]
- esfenvalerate (Asana XL) at 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz of product/A in up to 100 gal water per application. Very toxic to predatory mites. Foliar use may cause spider mite outbreaks. This pesticide is not compatible with integrated control programs for spider mites. REI 12 hr. PHI 21 days. [Group 3]
- fenpropathrin (Danitol 2.4 EC) at 16 to 21.3 fl oz/A in up to 100 gal water per application. Do not exceed 42.7 fl oz/A per season. Highly toxic to fish, bees, and wildlife. REI 24 hr. PHI 14 days. [Group 3A]
- gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare) at 1.02 to 2.05 fl oz in enough water to achieve good coverage. REI 24 hr. PHI days [Group 3A].
- kaolin (Surround WP) at 25 to 50 lb/A applied as a spray to leaves, stems, and fruit. Continue applications every 7 to 14 days to assure adequate coverage on newly growing plant surfaces. Kaolin acts as a repellant to target pests. REI 4 hr. PHI 0 days. Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
- lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior II) at 1.28 to 2.56 fl oz in enough water to achieve thorough coverage. REI 24 hr. PHI 21 days. [Group 3]
- methomyl (Lannate) at 1.5 to 3 pints per acre in up to 100 gal water. REI 72 hr. PHI 14 days. Ground application only. Danger: high acute human toxicity. [Group 1A]
- novaluron (Rimon) at 20 to 30 fl oz/A in up to 100 gal water per application. Targets nymphal stages tank mix with adulticide to target adults. Do not apply more than 150 fl oz per growing season. REI 12 hr. PHI 14 days. [Group 15]
- sulfoxaflor (Transform WG) at 0.75 to 1.5 oz/A in up to 100 gal water per application. See supplemental label. No more than 4 applications per season. PHI 7 days [Group 4C]
- zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang Maxx) at 4 fl oz/A in a minimum of 100 gal water for dilute spray. REI 12 hr. PHI 14 days. [Group 3A]