Apple-Leafhopper

Apple leafhopper (Empoasca maligna)

Rose leafhopper (Edwardsiana rose)

White apple leafhopper (Typhlocyba pomaria)

Pest description and crop damage The common leafhopper in Washington is the white apple leafhopper, although a very similar-appearing insect, the rose leafhopper, is also present. Other species are found throughout the Pacific Northwest. Rose leafhopper nymphs are very similar to white apple leafhopper, but they have rows of black spots on the back. Nymphs are light green and may move rapidly if disturbed. Adults and nymphs suck juices from leaves, causing stippling and mottling on leaves. Damage usually is most noticeable on poorly cared-for trees. In general, this pest is a minor problem, and even high populations rarely cause yield loss.

Biology and life history The insect overwinters as eggs just beneath the bark on 1- to 5-year-old twigs in the trees. Presence of the eggs is indicated by characteristic crescent-shape swellings in the bark. Eggs hatch at about the tight cluster stage (late March to mid-April), and nymphs feed for several weeks. Adults are flying by late May and can be observed from then until frost, when they are killed. Overwintering eggs are laid in September. There are two generations per year.

Scouting and thresholds As a minor pest, monitoring is not necessary, although presence of the adults can be confirmed by early morning limb taps.

Management-biological control

Parasitic wasps exert some control over leafhopper populations.

Pest description and crop damage White apple leafhopper nymphs are 0.04 to 0.6 inch (0.5 to 1.5 mm) long, white (occasionally yellow), and are found on the undersides of leaves. They begin hatching at prepink from overwintering eggs in the bark.

Management-chemical control: HOME USE

Petal fall spray

Best time to control the first generation is petal fall or shortly thereafter. Apply about 10 days after full petal fall (all petals are off) or 17 to 21 days after full bloom.

  • acetamiprid
  • azadirachtin (neem oil)-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • Beauveria bassiana-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • carbaryl-Highly toxic to bees.
  • esfenvalerate-Highly toxic to bees.
  • gamma-cyhalothrin-Highly toxic to bees.
  • imidacloprid-Soil drenches may have residual activity in woody plants lasting for 12 or more months. If short-term management is the goal, consider other approaches. Highly toxic to bees.
  • insecticidal soap-Some formulations OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • kaolin-Applied as a spray to leaves, stems, and fruit, it acts as a repellant to some insect pests. Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • lambda-cyhalothrin-Highly toxic to bees.
  • malathion-Highly toxic to bees.
  • permethrin-Highly toxic to bees.
  • pyrethrins (often as a mix with other ingredients)-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • spinosad-Highly toxic to bees. Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • zeta-cypermethrin-Highly toxic to bees.

Spring and summer

  • acetamiprid
  • azadirachtin (neem oil)-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • Beauveria bassiana-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • carbaryl-Highly toxic to bees.
  • esfenvalerate-Highly toxic to bees.
  • gamma-cyhalothrin-Highly toxic to bees.
  • imidacloprid-Soil drenches may have residual activity in woody plants lasting for 12 or more months. If short-term management is the goal, consider other approaches. Highly toxic to bees.
  • insecticidal soap-Some formulations OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • kaolin-Applied as a spray to leaves, stems, and fruit, it acts as a repellant to some insect pests. Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • lambda-cyhalothrin-Highly toxic to bees.
  • malathion-Highly toxic to bees.
  • permethrin-Highly toxic to bees.
  • pyrethrins (often as a mix with other ingredients)-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • spinosad-Highly toxic to bees. Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • zeta-cypermethrin-Highly toxic to bees.

Management-chemical control: COMMERCIAL USE

Petal fall spray

  • acetamiprid (Assail 70WP) at 1.1 to 1.7 oz/a in up to 100 gal of water per application. Do not make more than 4 applications per year or exceed 13.5 oz/a per growing season. PHI 7 days. [Group 4A]
  • buprofezin (Centuar WDG Insect Growth Regulator) at 34.5 oz/a as a ground application using a minimum of 20 gallons of water per acre. Do not make more than one application or apply more than 34.5 oz/a per growing season. PHI 14 days. [Group 16]
  • fenpyroximate (Fujimite 5EC) at 2 pints/a in a minimum of 100 gal of water per acre. Do not exceed two applications or 2 pints /a per season. Do not apply through any type of irrigation system. Do not apply by alternate row middle spray method. PHI 14 days. [Group 21A]
  • imidacloprid (Provado 1.6F; Prey 1.6) at 4 to 8 oz/a in up to 100 gal of water per application. Do not use within 10 days prior to bloom or when bees are actively foraging. Allow 10 days between applications. Do not apply more than 40 oz/a per growing season. PHI 7 days. [Group 4A]
  • insecticidal soap (M-Pede) at 1 gal/100 gal water (up to 4 gal/a in 400 gal of water per acre per application). PHI 0.5 day. M-Pede can be phytotoxic. Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • kaolin (Surround WP)-See label for rates. Multiple applications are required for leafhopper control. Thorough coverage is important.
  • novaluron (Rimon 0.83EC Insecticide) at 20 to 50 oz/a in 100 gal water per application. Do not use Rimon in alternate row middle application patterns since this method will result in off-timing application and poor performance. Do not apply more than four applications or more than 150 oz/a per growing season. Do not allow Rimon to drift on grapes as leaf spotting may occur. PHI 14 days. [Group 15]
  • thiacloprid (Calypso 4F) at 2 to 4 oz/a in up to 100 gal of water per application. Do not exceed 16 oz/a per season. PHI 30 days. [Group 4A]
  • thiamethoxam (Actara WDG) at 2 to 2.75 oz/a in up to 100 gal of water per application. Do not exceed 16.5 oz/a per season. Actara is extremely toxic to bees. PHI 14 days. [Group 4A]

Spring and summer

  • abamectin (Agri-Mek 0.15 EC) at 10 to 20 oz/a in up to 100 gal of water per application. For best effect apply against egg and early sap feeder stages of first and second generation. Do not apply during bloom. Do not apply more than two applications or 40 oz product/a per growing season. Best used early in the season (before June 15); control after that may be unsatisfactory. Use with an adjuvant. PHI 28 days. [Group 6]
  • acetamiprid (Assail 70WP) at 1.1 to 1.7 oz/a in up to 100 gal of water per application. Do not make more than 4 applications per year or exceed 13.5 oz/a per growing season. PHI 7 days. [Group 4A]
  • clothianidin (Clutch 50WDG) at 2 to 3 oz/a in up to 100 gal of water per application. Do not apply more than 6.4 oz/a per growing season. PHI 7 days. [Group 4A]
  • imidacloprid (Admire Pro 1.6F; Prey 1.6) at 4 to 8 oz/a in up to 100 gal of water per application. Do not use within 10 days prior to bloom or when bees are actively foraging. Allow 10 days between applications. Do not apply more than 40 oz product/a per growing season. PHI 7 days. [Group 4A]
  • indoxacarb (Avaunt) at 5.0 to 6.0 ounces/a in up to 100 gal water per application. Make no more than 3 applications prior to hand-thinning. No hand thinning after the 4th application. Make no more than 4 applications per growing season. Do not apply more than 24 oz product per acre per growing season. PHI 14 days. [Group 22A]
  • insecticidal soap (M-Pede) at 1 gal/100 gal water (up to 4 gal/a in 400 gal of water per acre per application). Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • kaolin (Surround WP)-See label for rates. Multiple applications are required for leafhopper control. Thorough coverage is important. Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • thiacloprid (Calypso 4F) at 2 to 4 oz/a in up to 100 gal of water per application Do not exceed 16 oz/a per season. PHI 30 days. [Group 4A]
  • thiamethoxam (Actara WDG) 2 to 2.75 oz/a in up to 100 gal of water per application. PHI 14 days. Do not exceed 16.5 oz /a per season. Actara is extremely toxic to bees. PHI 14 days. [Group 4A]
  • thiamethoxam/chlorantraniliprole (Voliam Flexi) at 4 to 7 oz of product/a in up to 100 gal of water per application. Do not apply exceed 16 oz of product/a per season and do not use an adjuvant within 60 days of harvest. Do not apply by air. Minimum interval between applications is 10 days. PHI 35 days. [Group 4A]