Sugar beet-Beet leafhopper

Circullifer tenellus

Pest description and crop damage Light yellow-green to gray-brown wedge-shaped body about 0.125 inch long. These readily crawl and jump as nymphs or jump and fly as adults. They are most important as a vector of curly top virus; they are seldom numerous enough to cause feeding injury through sap sucking. Not all leafhoppers found in sugar beets are the true beet leafhopper.

Scouting and thresholds No formal economic thresholds exist for beet leafhopper insecticide treatment decisions.

Management-cultural control

Manage curly top by planting approved resistant varieties rather than solely attempting to kill the highly mobile, winged adult.

Management-biological control

  • Beauveria bassiana (BotaniGard 22WP, BotaniGard ES, BotaniGard Maxx, Mycotrol ESO, Mycotrol O, Mycotrol WPO - live spores of an insect-killing fungus)-See label for rates. PHI 0 days. Typically requires 7 to 10 days after first spray for signs of effectiveness. Begin treatment at first appearance of pest. Reapply as necessary. OMRI-listed for organic use.

Management-chemical control

  • aldicarb (Temik 15G, Temik 15G Lock'n Load) at 2.1 to 3 lb ai/a. PHI 90 days, 120 days if tops are fed to livestock. Do not use tops as food for humans. Do not make more than one at-planting and two postemergence applications per crop. Do not exceed a total of 4.95 lb ai/a per season. Immediately deep-disk any spills at row ends or elsewhere to ensure the granules are covered with a layer of soil.
    • At planting (or within 1 week prior)-Drill granules 1 to 3 inches below seed line. Granules can be placed into the seed furrow if rate does not exceed 1.05 lb ai/a. Repeat applications may be required for continued protection against leafhoppers vectoring viruses.
    • Postemergence (multiple methods)-a) Apply granules to both sides of plant row and immediately work into the soil or cover with soil; b) For furrow irrigation, side-dress granules 4 to 8 inches to water-furrow side of plant row and at furrow depth. Irrigate soon after application. Apply within 60 days after planting. Repeat applications may be required for continued protection against leafhoppers vectoring viruses. Do not make any postemergence applications if 4.05 to 4.95 lb ai/a was applied at planting or within 1 week prior to planting.
  • azadirachtin-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
    • (Aza-Direct) at 0.0123 to 0.024 lb ai/a and up to 0.0432 lb ai/a under extremely heavy infestation.
    • (Debug Tres) at 0.0375 to 0.1054 lb ai/a
    • (Ecozin Plus) at 0.012 to 0.023 lb ai/acre. Spray when pests first appear and repeat after 7-10 days
  • carbaryl (Carbaryl 4L, Sevin 4F, Sevin XLR Plus, Sevin RP4, Sevin 80 Solupak, and others) at 1 to 1.5 lb ai/a. PHI 28 days. For Carbaryl 4L, Sevin 4F, and Sevin XLR Plus, do not apply more than a total of 3 lb ai/a per crop. For Sevin RP4, do not apply more than a total of 4 lb ai/a per crop. For and Sevin 80 Solupak, do not apply more than 4 lb ai/a per crop.
  • clothianidin (NipsIt INSIDE, NipsIt SUITE)-Application only by commercial seed treaters; no on-farm seed-treatment application.
  • clothianidin + beta-cyfluthrin (Poncho Beta)-Application only by commercial seed treaters; no on-farm seed-treatment application.
  • esfenvalerate (Asana XL, S-fenvaloStar, Zyrate) at 0.03 to 0.05 lb ai/a. PHI 21 days. Apply as necessary but no more than 0.15 lb ai/a per season.
  • garlic oil (Garlic Barrier AG+)-See label for rates. Apply as preventive repellent treatment prior to insect infestation. Make first application at crop emergence and repeat on a 10 to 14 spray schedule to maintain repellency effect.
  • horticultural oil (JMS Stylet Oil and others)-See label for rates. PHI 0 days. Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • imidacloprid (Advise 2FL, Agrisolutions Nitro Shield, Agristar Macho 600 ST, Attendant 480 FS, Axcess Insecticide Seed Treatment, Dyna-Shield Imidacloprid 5, Gaucho 480 Flowable, Gaucho 600 Flowable, Senator 600FS, Sharda 5SC)-Application only by commercial seed treaters; no on-farm seed-treatment application.
  • kaolin (Surround WP) at 23.75 to 47.5 lb ai/a. For suppression only. Product forms a barrier film that acts as a protectant; apply before infestations develop and continue on a 7 to 14 day schedule for the duration of the infestation. OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • naled (Dibrom 8 Emulsive) at 0.94 lb ai/a by air or on the ground. REI 48 hr. PHI 2 days. Do not apply more than 4.7 lb ai/a per season.
  • neem oil (NimBioSys)-See label for rates. REI 12 hr. OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • oxydemeton-methyl (MSR Spray Concentrate) at 0.45 to 0.6 lb ai/a. PHI 30 days. Do not apply more than once per season. Do not harvest beets or use beet tops for feed or forage within 30 days of last application.
  • phorate-
    • At planting (Thimet 20G and others)-Apply at 0.68 to 0.9 oz ai/1,000 row ft. PHI 30 days. Do not feed tops or silage to dairy cattle. Do not place granules in direct contact with seed. Drill to side of seed or band over seed. No more than one application per cropping season.
  • potassium salts of fatty acids (M-Pede)-See label for rates. PHI 0 days. Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • pyrethrins (Lynx EC 1.4, Lynx EC 5.0, PyGanic EC 1.4, Tersus)-See label for rates. REI 12 hr. PHI 0 days. Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • pyrethrins + Beauveria bassiana (Xpectro OD)-See label for rates. Do not exceed 0.05 lb ai/a. Do not reapply for at least 3 days. In case of extreme pest pressure, wait a minimum of 24 hr before reapplying. Do not harvest until spray has dried.
  • pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (Evergreen Crop Protection EC 60-6, Pyrenone, Pyronyl Crop Spray, and others)-See label for rates.
  • sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate (Prev-Am Ultra) applied as a 0.8% solution, 40-50 gal per acre. Spray every 7 to 10 days as necessary.
  • soybean oil + garlic oil + Capsicum oleoresin extract (Captiva)-See label for rates. PHI 0 days. REI 4 hr. OMRI-listed for organic use.
  • sulfoxaflor (Transform WG)-at 0.047 to 0.086 lb ai/a. Do not apply more than 0.266 lb ai/a per year. PHI 7 days.
  • terbufos (Counter CR Lock'n Load, Counter 20G Lock'n Load, Counter Smartbox 20G, Counter 15G Lock'n Load, and Counter 15G Smartbox)-One application per year. Do not place granules in direct contact with the seed. Do not exceed 2 lb ai/a. PHI 110 days for at planting banded, at planting in-furrow, or postemergence applications; PHI 150 days for at planting knifed-in application.
    • At planting (several methods)-
      • Apply at 0.6 to 1.2 oz ai/1,000 row, in 5- to 7-inch band over the row and lightly incorporate to 1 inch.
      • Apply at 1.2 oz ai/1,000 row feet, modified in-furrow, 2 to 3 inches behind seed drop zone after some soil has covered the seed.
      • Apply at 1.2 oz ai/1,000 row feet knifed-in. Drill granules 2 inches to the side of the seed and 2 to 4 inches below the seed.
    • Postemergence-Apply at 0.6 to 1.2 oz ai/1,000 row feet, in 5- to 7-inch band over the row, and lightly incorporate.
  • thiamethoxam (Cruiser 5FS)-Application only by commercial seed treaters; no on-farm seed-treatment application.
  • zeta-cypermethrin-
    • (Mustang) at 0.028 to 0.05 lb ai/a. PHI 50 days. Do not apply more than 0.15 lb ai/a per season (at planting + foliar applications). Apply with ground or air equipment using enough water to fully cover foliage.
    • (Mustang Maxx) at 0.014 to 0.025 lb ai/a. PHI 50 days for tops or roots. Do not apply more than 0.075 lb ai/a per season. REI 12 hr. Apply by air or ground using minimum of 2 gal per acre by air and 10 gal per acre by ground.