Glossary

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Chemical movement to the side in a plant or in the soil, or horizontal movement in the roots or soil layer.

Applied with or after the last cultivation of a crop.

The downward movement of a substance in solution through the soil.

Flat portion of a leaf.

Fatal or deadly.

An ester compound with a high molecular weight and a low vapor pressure, such as butoxyethanol, iso-octyl, or propylene glycol butyl ester.

A spray application of 5 to 20 gal/A.

Two or more liquids capable of being mixed, which will remain mixed under normal conditions.

A seed plant having a single cotyledon or seed leaf. Includes corn, grasses, lilies, orchids, palms, etc. Leaves are mostly parallel-veined.

weeds that are resistant to two or more herbicides with different sites of action.

A compound having the property to induce mutations.

Localized death of living tissue as, for example, following desiccation, browning, and loss of function.

Chemically inert and often used with herbicides.

Chemicals or formulations that destroy or prevent plant life in general without regard to species.

A weed defined by law as being especially undesirable, troublesome, or difficult to control.

Usually refers to aromatic or paraffinic oils used in formulating products, as diluents or carriers for herbicides or for direct use.

Organic matter.

Toxicity of a compound when it is ingested.

A dry formulation of herbicide and other components in discrete particles usually larger than 10 cubic centimeters (cc).

A plant that continues to live from year to year. In many cases, in cold climates the tops die down but the roots and rhizomes persist. Examples: field bindweed, Canada thistle, quackgrass, dandelion.

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for controlling insects, rodents, fungi, weeds, and other forms of plant or animal life that are considered to be pests.

The amount of pesticide residue that may legally remain in or on a food crop.

The formation of plant sugars from carbon dioxide and water using the energy of sunlight.

Microscopic plant life living suspended in water.

Poisonous or injurious to plants.

Treatments made after plants emerge above the soil surface; sometimes defined as early or late with respect to the crop.

Application of a pesticide to the soil or plant after crops have been harvested.

Parts per million.

Treatment made after a crop is planted, but before it emerges.

Contact preemergence-an application made after weeds emerge but before crop emerges.

Residual preemergence-an application that kills weeds as the seeds germinate or as they emerge, either before or after the crop has emerged. (Application is before crop emerges.)

Applied and tilled into the soil before seeding or transplanting.

Treatment made before the crop is planted.

Pounds per square inch.

Hairy. Pubescence affects ease of wetting of foliage and also retention of spray on foliage.

The amount of active ingredient or acid equivalent applied per unit area or other treatment unit.

Pesticides that have been approved for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

The amount of pesticide that is on or in the crop at the time an analysis is made.

The amount of pesticide residue that may legally remain in or on a food crop.

A plant population that does not respond to rates of a herbicide to which it was formerly susceptible.

Underground rootlike stem that produces roots and leafy shoots.

The basal or early leaves of a plant, before bolting.