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Any liquid or solid material that will remove residues from application equipment, such as dishwashing and laundry detergent.

A plant that has two seed leaves or cotyledons. Generally includes broadleaf plants.

Any liquid or solid material to dilute the technical toxicant to field strength for adequate plant coverage.

Precise application to a specific area or plant organ such as to a row or bed or to a specific part of the plant.

A material that reduces the cohesive forces between similar particles.

Solids that form solutions where no residue remains.

State of inhibited germination of seeds or growth of plant organs. A state of suspended development.

Chemical applied in winter or very early spring before treated plants have started active growth.

The terms are the same; however, rate is preferred. Refers to the amount of active ingredient applied to a unit area regardless of percentage of chemical in the carrier.

The movement of airborne particles by air motion or wind away from the intended target area.

Formulation made of finely ground herbicide particles compressed into granular particles that can be suspended readily in water for application.

The act of a germinating seedling's breaking through the soil surface.

A material used to cause vomiting to rid stomachs of poisonous compounds.

A concentrated herbicide formulation containing organic solvents and adjuvants to facilitate emulsification with water.

A surface-active substance that promotes the suspension of one liquid in another.

Twisting or curling of leaves and stems caused by uneven growth of cells. This is a characteristic reaction from treatment with 2,4-D and other growth regulators.

A compound formed by reaction of an acid and an alcohol accompanied by the loss of water formed during the reaction.

A seed bed that is prepared by tilling the soil well ahead of crop planting, and where tillage or other techniques are used to destroy emerged weeds before the crop is planted.

Formulation made of finely ground herbicide particles that are suspended in a liquid, which is then diluted with water for application.

A mixture containing the active pesticide, the carrier, diluents, and other additives required to make the material ready for application.

Chemical used in the form of a volatile liquid or a gas to kill insects, nematodes, fungi, bacteria, seeds, roots, rhizomes, or entire plants; usually applied in an enclosure of some kind or in the soil with a plastic or water surface seal.

Gallons per acre.

Gallons per minute.

A dry formulation of herbicide in which the active ingredient is impregnated on small particles of carrier such as clay or ground corncobs.

Botanically, any plant of the Gramineae family. Grasses are characterized by narrow leaves with parallel veins; by leaves composed of blade, sheath, and ligule; by jointed stems and fibrous roots; and by inconspicuous flowers usually arranged in spikelets.

A substance used for controlling or modifying plant growth processes.

Water that contains certain minerals, usually calcium and magnesium sulfates, chlorides, or carbonates in solution in sufficient amounts to cause a curd or precipitate instead of a lather when soap is added. Generally defined as water containing 332 ppm of calcium carbonate. Very hard water may cause precipitates in some herbicidal sprays.

The probability that injury or detrimental effects will result if a substance is not used properly.

A plant that remains soft or succulent and does not develop woody tissue.

A phytotoxic chemical used for killing or inhibiting (stunting) the development or growth of plants.

Spray applications of more than 60 gal/a volume.

A naturally occurring substance in plants that controls growth or other physiological processes. It is used with reference to certain synthetic chemicals that require or affect growth activity.

Soil at bottom of the body of water.

Mixing a herbicide into the soil, generally by mechanical means or with overhead water.

That part of a compound without toxic or killing properties, sometimes called the carrier.

To hold in check or stop; e.g., to inhibit or check seed germination or plant growth with herbicides.

Using multiple approaches for pest control; pesticides are used only when and at rates necessary.

The suspension of minute water droplets in a continuous oil phase, usually forming a thick, mayonnaise-like mixture.

One that ionizes or dissociates in water.

Value for how strongly a herbicide adsorbs to soil when normalized for the amount of organic matter in a soil.