Site Preparation-Perennial and Annual Broadleaves

aminocyclopyrachlor (Method)

General weed control for non-crop producing and uncultivated agriculture lands and natural area such as wildlife management areas, wildlife openings, and wildlife habitat

Rate 0.125 to 2.5 lb ai/a (8 to 16 oz/a).

Time Apply to broadleaf weeds in spring. Preemergence activity, but should be applied postemergence for perennial weed control.

Remarks Use MSO as an adjuvant at 1%v/v. May be applied to the water edge but not directly to water.

Caution Sensitive species include conifers, cottonwoods, silver maple, yew, and willow species. Even low rates can kill non-target tree and shrub species so avoid application within a distance equal to the tree height of sensitive species. Do not allow spray to drift off target. Can injure several grass species including bromes and wildrye. Do not use more than 18 fl oz/a per year.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Phenoxy acetic acid

aminopyralid (Milestone)

Control of herbaceous broadleaf weeds and woody plants in wildlife habitats including seasonally dry wetlands and around standing water in riparian areas

Rate 0.047 to 0.11 lb ae/a (3 to 7 fl oz/a Milestone) depending on species

Time Apply to actively growing plants in the rosette.

Remarks Target specie include sunflower family (Asteraceae) including Canada thistle and hawkweeds; St. Johnswort, wild carrot, suppression of common tansy, and many woody species at higher use rates. A nonionic surfactant at 1 to 2 quarts per 100 gal of spray enhances control under adverse environmental conditions. Can be applied up to water's edge in seasonally dry wetlands.

Caution Do not apply directly to water and take precautions to minimize spray drift onto water. Do not exceed 7 fl oz/a Milestone per year. Hay from treated areas cannot be removed from the site and used for forage for 18 months. Do not apply near the base of desirable trees unless some injury can be tolerated. Roots may pick up aminopyralid and translocate it to aboveground shoots of sensitive species. Consult label for a list of species that may be controlled or injured.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Pyridine

chlorsulfuron (Telar)

Broadleaf annual and perennial weed control in uncultivated and non-crop producing areas such as soil bank land

Rate 0.75 oz ai/a (1/4 to 2.6 oz/a of the 75% Telar)

Time Apply preemergence or early postemergence to actively growing plants.

Remarks Can be used on public and private land to control weeds that are listed as invasive. Permissible to treat intermittent drainage areas, intermittently flooded low lying sites, seasonably dry flood plains, and transitional areas between upland and lowland sites when no water is present. Using a nonionic surfactant increases effectiveness. Target species includes wild carrot, wild garlic, Canada thistle, common tansy, poison hemlock, puncturevine and many others.

Caution Many grasses are tolerant if well established. Exceptions are perennial ryegrass and fescue. Off-site movement via drift may cause excessive damage to sensitive plants. Do not apply to natural or man-made bodies of water including ponds, streams and rivers. Chlorsulfuron is persistent with a half-life of 40 days. Soil bioassays or test strips are recommended before replanting crops sensitive to chlorsulfuron.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Sulfonylurea

clopyralid (Transline or Spur)

Herbaceous broadleaf weeds and woody brush species in forest sites and wildlife openings including tree plantations

Rate 0.09 to 0.5 lbs ae/a (1/4 to 1 1/3 pts/a) depending on species

Time When most of basal shoots have emerged up to early bud.

Remarks A nonionic surfactant at 1 to 2 quarts per 100 gal of spray enhances control under adverse environmental conditions, but may also increase crop response. Target species include Canada thistle, knapweeds, weeds of the sunflower family (Asteraceae).

Caution Do not apply in the first year after transplanting. Do not apply directly to water or to areas where surface waters are present. Do not exceed 1 1/3 pts oz/a/year. Do not apply near the base of desirable trees unless some injury can be tolerated. Consult label for a list of species that may be controlled or injured.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Pyridine

dicamba (Vision)

For control of a wide spectrum of annual, biennial, and perennial broadleaf weeds and brush.

Rate Up to 2 lb ae/a (2 quarts/a)

Time When annual weeds are less than 6 inches tall, when biennial weeds are in the rosette stage, and to perennial weed regrowth in late summer or fall following a mowing or tillage treatment.

Remarks The most effective control of such weeds as Canada thistle occurs if applied when the majority of weeds have at least 4 to 6 inches of regrowth or for weeds such as field bindweed and hedge bindweed that are in or beyond the full bloom stage. Typically applied with 2,4-D or other phenoxy herbicides to significantly broaden spectrum and to kill well established brush species.

Caution This product will injure or kill sensitive broadleaf plants. Allow a minimum of 30 days after application before planting sensitive species. Do not contaminate water.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Benzoic acid

metsulfuron (Patriot, Escort and others)

Used for general weed and brush control on noncrop sites, and conifer and hardwood plantations

Rate 0.075 to 0.3 lb ai/a (0.5 to 2 oz/a)

Time For best results, apply postemergence to young, actively growing weeds or brush. Selective to many grasses

Remarks Good control of Himalayan blackberry. May combine with other products to broaden weed-control spectrum. Using a nonionic or silicone surfactant will increase effectiveness. Application sites differ between products; consult label.

Caution Agitation required. Do not allow spray to drift to crops or other valuable plants or trees.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Sulfonylurea

picloram (Tordon 22K)

For control of susceptible broadleaf weeds, woody plants and vines on forest planting sites and on wildlife openings in forest and non-crop areas.

Rate 0.25 to 0.5 lb ai/a (1 to 2 pints/a Tordon)

Time Apply in spring when actively growing before full bloom, or in late summer.

Remarks Tank mix 1 lb ae/a of 2,4-D with the lower rate of picloram to improve control spectrum and reduce potential for offsite damage and soil persistence. Apply no more than 2 quarts/a within a period of 2 annual growing seasons.

Caution A restricted-use herbicide. Do not apply if circumstances favor movement from treatment site. This product will readily volatilize, move off-site and damage neighboring vegetation. It is also persistent in the soil. Do not apply directly to water or to areas where surface water is present or to intertidal areas below the mean high water mark.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Pyridine

triclopyr ester (Garlon 4 or Remedy) or triclopyr amine (Garlon 3A)

For site preparation and release in forested sites

Rate 0.5% to 2% concentration for application with a handgun sprayer.

Time Apply to actively growing plants in midsummer.

Remarks Adding 0.25% to 0.5% of a suitable surfactant to Garlon 3A improves results. No surfactant is needed with Garlon 4 or Remedy.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family (triclopyr) Pryidine; (2,4-D) Phenoxy acetic acid