Goatsrue (Galega officinalis)

2,4-D amine or LV ester

Rate 1.9 lb ae/a (2 quarts/a)

Time Apply in early to midsummer when plants are in bud stage to full flower stage of growth.

Remarks 2,4-D is usually not able to fully control goatsrue, so combining with other products is generally recommended. Retreatment will likely be necessary.

Caution Avoid drift to sensitive crops.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Phenoxy acetic acid

aminopyralid (Milestone)

Rate 1.25 oz ae/a (5 fl oz/a)

Time Apply in early to midsummer when plants are in bud stage to full flower stage of growth.

Caution Do not let spray drift onto desirable vegetation. Many forbs (desirable broadleaf plants) can be seriously injured or killed. Do not exceed 7 fl oz/a Milestone per year.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Pyridine

aminocyclopyrachlor + chlorsulfuron (Perspective)

Rate 4 to 6 oz/a

Time Apply in early to midsummer when plants are in bud stage to full flower stage of growth.

Remarks Adjuvants can be used; these include methylated seed oils 0.5 to 1% v/v, nonionic surfactants at 0.25 to 1% v/v, and crop oil concentrates at 1%v/v.

Caution Do not apply to the root zone of desirable trees and shrubs. May injure or kill some grass species.

Site of action (aminocyclopyrachlor) Group 4 synthetic auxin; (chlorsulfuron) Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family (aminocyclopyrachlor) pyridine; (chlorsulfuron) sulfonylurea

aminopyralid + metsulfuron (Opensight)

Rate 2.5 to 3.3 oz/a

Time Preemergence in autumn, or in spring to rosettes.

Remarks Adjuvants can be used; these include methylated seed oils 0.5 to 1% v/v, nonionic surfactants at 0.25 to 1% v/v, and crop oil concentrates at 1% v/v.

Caution May injure or kill some grass species.

Site of action (aminopyralid) Group 4 synthetic auxin; (metsulfuron) Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family (aminopyralid) Pyridine; (metsulfuron) Sulfonylurea

chlorsulfuron (Telar and others)

Rate 0.75 oz ai/a (1 oz/a).

Time Apply in early to midsummer when plants are in bud stage to full flower stage of growth.

Remarks Add 0.25% by volume of nonionic surfactant to spray mixture.

Caution Avoid drift to sensitive crops.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Sulfonylurea

dicamba (Banvel and others)

Rate 2 lb ae/a (2 quarts/a)

Time Apply in early to midsummer when plants are in bud stage to full flower stage of growth.

Caution Avoid drift to sensitive crops.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Benzoic acid

imazapyr (Arsenal, Habitat)

Rate 8 oz ae/a (2 pints/a)

Time Apply in early to midsummer when plants are in bud stage to full flower stage of growth.

Remarks Add 0.25% by volume of nonionic surfactant, or 1 to 2 pints/a methylated seed soil or crop oil concentrate to spray mixture.

Caution Imazapyr is nonselective; spray will injure or kill vegetation contacted.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Imidazolinone

metsulfuron (Escort and others)

Rate 0.6 oz ai/a (1 oz/a)

Time Apply in early to midsummer when plants are in bud stage to full flower stage of growth.

Remarks Add 0.25% by volume of nonionic surfactant to spray mixture. Application sites differ between products; consult labels.

Caution Avoid contacting sensitive crops. Apply only to pasture, rangeland, and non-crop sites.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Sulfonylurea

picloram (Tordon)

Rate 0.5 oz ae/a

Time Apply in early to midsummer when plants are in bud stage to full flower stage of growth.

Caution Most formulations are restricted-use herbicides. See label for grazing restrictions. Do not contaminate water. Potatoes, beans, and many other crops are very sensitive to picloram. Do not use in diversified cropping areas. At rates above 0.5 lb ae/a (1 quart/a), apply only as spot treatment not to exceed 25% of a landowner's acreage in a given watershed in a single season.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Pyridine