Holly, English (Ilex aquifolium)

Methods of control include pulling, and herbicides applied to cut stumps, cut surfaces (such as hack and squirt), by injection into the stem, and as (topical) basal bark/stem treatments (12 to 15 inches above ground cut). Pulling is partially effective if stems are very small. Refer to the forestry section (M) in this handbook for more complete discussion about specific application methods and rates..

glyphosate

Rate 0.75 to 1.5 lb ae/a

Time Fall and late spring

Remarks 50% control if applied to frilled stems. Cut stump treatments may result in excessive sprouting with very poor long-term control. Fall treatment most effective. Injection and hack and squirt applications of glyphosate into stems may be more effective in the spring than in the fall

Site of action Group 9: inhibits EPSP synthase

Chemical family Glycine

imazapyr (Arsenal, Chopper, Ez-Ject Copperhead Herbicide Shells)

Rate Cut stump treatment: undiluted

Cut Surface Applications (hack and squirt): 1 ml of 50% solution at intervals of 3 to 4 inches between cuts

Injection: 1 ml of dilute solution in each injection, separated by no more than 3 inches.

Time Fall or late spring

Remarks Very effective If injected into stem. No more than 1.5 lb ae/a/yr (96 fluid oz/a).

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Imidazolinone

triclopyr (Element 4, Garlon 4 or Garlon 3A)

Rate Cut stump treatment:. Undiluted

Cut Surface Applications (hack and squirt): 1 ml of 50 to 100% solution at intervals of 3 to 4 inches between cuts.

Basal bark treatment: 20 to 30% solution in oil (low volume) or 1 to 5 % solution in oil (high volume)

Injection: 1/2 to 1 ml of undiluted Garlon 3A at intervals of 3 to 4 inches between centers of the injector wound

Time Fall and late spring

Remarks Applying triclopyr to frilled stems is very effective in both seasons. May be applied at a rate of up to 6 lb ae of triclopyr per acre per year.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Pyridine