Postemergence-directed, shielded or hooded sprayers, harvest aids

caprylic plus capric acids (Suppress)

Rate 3% to 9% dilution in 25 to 100 gal of water, depending on weed size, temperature, and sunlight intensity.

Time Any time during the crop growing season to control weeds in row-middles or to burn down unwanted crop vegetation.

Remarks OMRI approved burndown. Not selective in broadleaf vegetable crops, and crop will be injured any time the spray contacts plant tissue. Do not apply to weeds when wet from dew, rain or water. Do not water within 2 hr after application. Do not apply if rainfall is expected within 2 hr of spray. For mature weeds up to 6 inches tall, use the higher rates in up to 100 gal of water/a.

carfentrazone (Aim)

Rate Up to 0.031 lb ai/a (up to 2 fl oz/a)

Time Preemergence or any time during the crop growing season to control weeds in row-middles or to burndown unwanted crop vegetation

Remarks The EPA classifies carfentrazone as a low-risk herbicide, and it is therefore registered on many crops as a post directed-application.

Caution This herbicide is not selective in broadleaf vegetable crops, and crops will be injured any time the spray contacts plant tissue.

Spray equipment clean-out: Aim herbicide is active at very low rates; ensure that spray tanks are thoroughly cleaned before pesticides are applied to other crops. Clean the spray tank as soon as possible after use with recommended cleaning procedures on the label.

Site of action Group 14: protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor

Chemical family Triazinone

clove leaf oil (Matratec EC)

Rate 5% to 10% dilution in 25 to 100 gal of water, depending on weed size, temperature, and sunlight intensity.

Time Before weeds are 6 inches tall.

Remarks OMRI-listed and WSDA-approved herbicide for in-crop use. Apply before crop emergence, or between rows after emergence, avoiding contact with desirable foliage. Directed sprays or hooded sprayers are recommended. Works best on annual weeds less than 6 inches. Performance may be erratic depending on environmental conditions. Bright sunlight improves efficacy. No preharvest interval or reentry interval.

d-limonene or lemongrass oil (Avenger AG)

Rate 13% to 25% dilution depending on weed size and species.

Time When weeds are less than 6 inches tall.

Remarks OMRI-listed, NOP-compliant, and WSDA-approved organic burndown herbicide for use in crop and noncrop sites. Foliage contacted by Avenger will be damaged. Directed sprays or hooded sprayers are recommended. Coverage is very important. Leaf damage is visible within hours. Cool weather may slow activity. No reentry interval. Fast wilting or necrosis of the leaves may occur due to removal of waxy cuticle.

glyphosate (Roundup and many others)

Rate 0.5 to 2 lb ae/a

Time Apply to seedbeds before or shortly after the crop is planted or emerges.

Remarks Refer to the table "Registered Uses of Glyphosate" in this section for general guidelines; read the label carefully to determine proper timing and which product can be applied to each crop.

Caution Glyphosate may injure some crops if the soil is extremely sandy, or if the planter did not properly close the seed row. Do not let glyphosate contact seeds or any part of the seedling, as crop failure will result.

Site of action Group 9: inhibits EPSP synthase

Chemical family None generally accepted

paraquat (Gramoxone SL 2.0) or diquat (Reglone)

Rate Consult label

Time Many crops and situations, including weed control in row middles after crop establishment; consult labels.

Remarks Apply between rows in vegetable crops. Use paraquat if grasses are present. Add a nonionic surfactant or crop oil concentrate as label specifies. Take care to avoid anionic formulations that react in the tank to form insoluble precipitates. Exposed crop plants may be killed if these herbicides contact sufficient living tissue.

Caution Paraquat is a restricted-use herbicide. Do not ingest or inhale spray mist. Applicators must wear long-sleeve shirt and long pants, shoes plus socks, protective eyewear, chemical-resistant gloves, and a NIOSH-approved particulate respirator or approved powered air-purifying respirator.

Site of action (both) Group 22: photosystem I electron diversion

Chemical family (both) Bipyridilium