Broadleaf Weeds

2,4-D (2,4-D Amine 4)

Rate 2 to 4 pints/A

Time Apply when broadleaf weeds listed on label are actively growing.

Remarks 2,4-D is a foliar- or root-absorbed translocated herbicide available as amine salts and low-volatile esters. Amines are generally safe in a wide range of temperatures. Esters are useful in cool, rainy weather but are more likely to volatilize. 2,4-D is effective on dandelion, false dandelion, and plantains but weak on clover and other hard-to-kill weeds. 2,4-D is best used in mixtures for broad-spectrum weed control.

Caution 2,4-D may injure sensitive grasses such as bentgrass (turf) and roughstalk bluegrass when applied at high rates or during periods of environmental stress. Make sure to follow the regulations in eastern Washington for formulation and application timing allowed. Do not exceed maximum of 6 pints/A per season, excluding spot treatments.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Phenoxy acetic acid

bromoxynil (Broclean for sod farms, Agrisolutions MOXY 2E, Agristar BROX 2EC, Buctril 4EC Herbicide, Buctril Herbicide, Cleansweeo D Herbicide, Maestro 2EC Herbicide, Maestro 4EC Selective Herbicide)

Rate 1 to 2 pints/A. All mixtures with bromoxynil are for nonresidential turfgrasses.

Time Must be applied to actively growing weed seedlings (less than four-leaf stage, 2 inches tall, or 1 inch in diameter) for optimal control.

Remarks Broclean is available as an octanoic acid ester formulation of bromoxynil. A selective postemergence herbicide, it controls certain broadleaf weeds in sod production, seedling and established nonresidential turfgrass, noncropland, and industrial sites. Acts on contact with very little persistence. Established turfgrasses tolerant to bromoxynil are bentgrasses, Kentucky bluegrass, fescues, ryegrass, bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, and St. Augustinegrass. It is active on a range of weeds, including annual sowthistle, field pennycress, lambsquarters, nightshades (black, eastern black, cutleaf, hairy, and silverleaf), green and Pennsylvania smartweed, pepperweed, and shepherdspurse. It will suppress Canada thistle only by burning down the top growth. See label for tank-mix recommendations with specific herbicides, and for cautions and additional weeds that those mixtures control.

Caution Leaves may burn if plants are stressed at time of application. Apply to dry foliage when weather is not extreme, to minimize temporary leaf burn. Do not apply with fertilizers if leaf burn is a concern due to environmental conditions. Screens should not be finer than 50 mesh in nozzle tips and in-line strainers on the sprayer. Do not exceed 2 pints/A.

Site of action Group 6: photosynthesis II inhibitor

Chemical family Nitrile

carfentrazone-ethyl (QuickSilver T&O Herbicide)

Rate For moss control by itself use 6.7 fl oz/A, with a second application at 6.7 fl oz/A two weeks after the first application.

Time Apply when broadleaf weeds listed on label are actively growing. Do not apply when conditions favor spray drift or poor spray coverage. Allow at least 2 weeks between sequential broadcast applications. Do not apply by air or through any type of irrigation system.

Remarks QuickSilver T&O Herbicide is a contact herbicide with little or no residual activity. It provides selective postemergence control of broadleaf weeds and silvery thread moss (Bryum argenteum) in turfgrass. It is an aryl triazolinone herbicide that interrupts chlorophyll synthesis and produces metabolic byproducts that disrupt plant cell membranes. This process occurs only in susceptible green plants in the presence of light. Symptoms may appear on foliage in 24 hours or less, in susceptible plants. Complete desiccation and death occur within 7 to 14 days of application. QuickSilver is rainfast within 1 hour after application. Established cool-season grasses generally tolerate applications at labeled rates. Tall fescue may yellow slightly within 3 to 5 days after application under some conditions. Recovery typically is within 4 to 7 days. If such injury cannot be tolerated, apply to a small test area before treating a large area. QuickSilver can be applied to the following species of turfgrass 7 days or more after emergence: creeping bentgrass, tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, and Kentucky bluegrass.

Caution Do not apply to carpetgrass, dichondra, or to lawns or turf with desirable clovers. Avoid spray drift to nontarget, desirable, susceptible plants such as vegetables, flowers, ornamentals, trees, and shrubs. Product can be tank-mixed with other products, but observe all label restrictions regarding turf tolerance of companion products when tank-mixed with QuickSilver T&O. Maintain spray solution at pH 5 to 8. Do not excee­d 6.7 fl oz/A (0.1 lb ai/A) per application or 26.8 fl oz/A (0.4 lb ai/A) per season.

Site of action Group 14: protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor

Chemical family Triazinone

clopyralid (Lontrel T&O, Clean Slate)

Rate 0.25 to 1.33 pints/A (0.09 to 0.50 lb ae/A)

Time Apply to broadleaf weeds listed on label only on healthy, well-established turf that has a well-anchored root system.

Remarks A foliar- and root-absorbed, highly translocated herbicide formulated as an amine salt. It is active on legumes, black medic, clover (red, hop, white, and sweet), thistles, knapweeds, and speedwell. Use on nonresidential turf such as athletic and recreational sports fields, cemeteries, golf courses, industrial sites, military bases, noncropland, parks, rights-of-way, schools, and other nonresidential turf roadsides.

Caution A restricted-use herbicide in Washington. For use on golf courses only in Washington and Oregon. Lawn uses are restricted to nonresidential uses only. Lontrel T&O is safe on bentgrass; Kentucky bluegrass; Chewings, creeping, and sheep fescue; tall fescue; and perennial ryegrass. May discolor or stunt turf that is not well established or that is stressed by unfavorable conditions. Do not contaminate irrigation ditches or water for irrigation or domestic uses. Susceptible trees or shrubs (legumes) will be injured if sprays contact exposed suckers and/or roots. Do not reseed turfgrass for 3 weeks after application. Do not use on golf course putting greens or tees or on residential turf. Do not send clippings to a compost facility. Do not collect grass clippings for mulch or compost. Applicators must tell landowners/property managers not to use grass clippings for composting.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Pyridine

clopyralid + triclopyr (Confront, Quali-Pro 2-D Herbicide)

Rate 1 to 2 pints/A (0.09 to 0.19 lb ae/A clopyralid; 0.28 to 0.56 lb ae/A triclopyr)

Time Apply to actively growing broadleaf weeds listed on label.

Remarks A foliar- and root-absorbed, highly translocated herbicide formulated as an amine salt. It is active on legumes, docks, knotweed, and dandelions, among others.

Caution A restricted-use herbicide in Oregon and Washington. For use on golf courses only in Washington and Oregon. Clopyralid + triclopyr mixtures appear safe on tall fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass but may injure bent-grasses, roughstalk bluegrass, and annual bluegrass. Do not use on residential turf. Do not send clippings to a compost facility or use for mulch or compost. Applicators must tell landowners/property managers not to use grass clippings for composting. Do not exceed 4 pints/A Confront per year.

Site of action (both) Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family (both) Pyridine

dicamba (Banvel Herbicide, Clarity Herbicide, Clash Selective Herbicide, Alligare Cruise Control, Alligare Dicamba 4, Detonate Herbicide, Diablo, Dicamba DMA Salt, Dicamba MAX 4, Dicamba, Dicash DGA-4 Herbicide, DuPont BL1 Herbicide, DuPont Dicamba XP Herbicide, DuPont Fexapan, Topeka, Riverdale Vanquish, Vision, Rifle Herbicide, Agrisolutions Sterling Blue Herbicide, Xtendimax with Vaporgrip Technology)

Rate 0.25 to 2 pints/A (0.125 to 1 lb ae/A)

Time Apply to actively growing broadleaf weeds listed on label.

Remarks Dicamba is a foliar- and root-absorbed translocated herbicide available in dimethylamine and sodium salt formulations. It is active on a wide range of weeds, including clovers, chickweeds, and yarrow. It is weak on Oxalis species (woodsorrel), violets, plantains, and pineapple weed, among others. Dicamba is widely used in mixtures to broaden the spectrum of weed control.

Caution Dicamba persists in soil longer than other common broadleaf herbicides and can move with the wetting front of soil water. Used repeatedly at high rates, it can injure nontarget trees and shrubs via root uptake. As formulated in mixtures, dicamba is generally safe when applied at label rates. Wait 30 days between applications. Do not exceed 4 pints/A per growing season.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Benzoic acid

dichlorprop (2,4-DP or many other products)

Rate Use a maximum of 0.75 lb ae/A per broadcast application; maximum of 2 lb ae/A for spot treatments.

Time Apply to actively growing broadleaf weeds listed on label.

Remarks 2,4-DP is a foliar- or root-absorbed translocated herbicide available in many mixtures with many other ingredients, in ester and potassium salt formulations. Weed control spectrum is limited when used alone. In mixtures, it generally is more active than MCPP, which it replaces.

Caution Tolerance of grasses to 2,4-DP appears to be similar to tolerance of 2,4-D. Aerial applications are prohibited. Broadcast applications are limited to 0.75 lb ae/A total in no more than two applications per year at least 30 days apart. Spot treatments are limited to 2 lb ae/A total in no more than two applications per year at least 30 days apart. Mixers and loaders supporting handgun applications must wear respirators. Do not apply within 25 ft of water. Reentry interval is 48 hours.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Phenoxy acetic acid

dithiopyr (Armortech CGC 2L, Dimension 2EW Specialty Herbicide, Dimension EC Specialty Herbicide, Dimension Ultra 40WP Specialty Herbicide, Dimension 270-G Turf & Landscape Ornamental, Dithiopyr 2L Specialty Herbicide, Quali-Pro Dithiopyr 40 WSB Specialty Herbicide, many fertilizer products with dithiopyr on granules.)

Rate Use 0.19 to 0.38 lb ae/A.

Time Apply preemergence when soil is about 50°F (approximately when forsythia blooms). Apply postemergence to crabgrass and annual bluegrass when they are very small (below the first tiller stage).

Remarks Dithiopyr is available in EC, 40WSB, and 40WSP formulations, as granules, and on fertilizers. It gives preemergence control of crabgrasses, foxtails, barnyardgrass, and a number of broadleaf weeds, including purslane, Oxalis species, and spurge. It also gives preemergence control of annual bluegrass (Poa annua). It gives postemergence control of crabgrass up to the first tiller growth stage. Dithiopyr appears to be safe on mature creeping bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, and some fine fescues.

Caution Do not use on seedling turf; injury will be severe. Do not apply to turf under environmental stress. Do not apply more than 0.5 lb ai/A per application or more than 1.5 lb ai/A per year in split or sequential applications.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Pyridine

florasulam (Defendor Specialty Herbicide)

Rate Use 4 fl oz/A (0.25 pints/A; 0.09 fl oz/1,000 sq ft; 2.7 ml/1,000 sq/ft)

Time Apply to small actively growing broadleaf weeds as listed on label.

Remarks When Defendor is applied in early spring, it will prevent dandelions from blooming. It is a systemic herbicide that is absorbed via the leaves, shoots and roots of susceptible broadleaf weeds. It works as an ALS inhibitor, preventing enzyme synthesis and cell division. When applied early in the season, growth of susceptible weeds will be stunted immediately and effective control will be seen in 2 to 4 weeks. It is safe on most cool-season and warm-season grasses when they are established.

Caution Do not apply to golf course greens. When applying in tank mix combinations, follow label use directions, precautions and limitations. Do not allow Defendor to sit in tank overnight or for prolonged periods without agitation before use. Do not apply directly to desirable plants such as flowers, trees, or ornamental shrubs as serious damage may occur. Do not allow sprays of Defendor to come into contact with exposed suckers or roots of shallow rooted trees or shrubs or damage will occur. To minimize damage to turfgrass, do not apply additional applications within 4 weeks of a previous application. Do not use treated clippings for mulch around edible plants. Do not apply more than 12 fl oz (0.75 pints; 0.039 lb ai florasulam) /A per annual growing season. Do not apply this product through any type of irrigation system.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase inhibitor

Chemical family Sulfonanilide

fluroxypyr (Comet Selective Herbicide, Vista XRT, Vista XRT Specialty Herbicide)

Rate Use 0.33 to 1.33 pints/A Vista XRT (0.12 to 0.47 lb ae/A); 0.67 to 2.67 pints/A Comet (0.125 to 0.5 lb ae/A)

Time Apply to actively growing broadleaf weeds as listed on label.

Remarks Supplemental label (Vista XRT). Fluroxypyr is a nonvolatile ester for postemergence control of annual and perennial broadleaf weeds and woody brush in established turf, including residential lawn, golf courses, sports fields, sod farms, around commercial buildings, and other commercial turf areas. Mow newly seeded turf two or three times before application. Control may be less if applied to wet foliage. Product is rainfast within 1 hour after application. Can be tank-mixed with other postemergence broadleaf herbicides for additional control of white clover, black medic, dandelion, plantain, Oxalis species, and others.

Caution Do not use on golf course putting greens or tees. Do not let spray contact exposed suckers or exposed roots of shallow-rooted trees and shrubs, or injury may occur. To minimize grass injury potential, do not reapply within 4 weeks. Avoid spraying when humidity is low and/or temperatures are high to avoid evaporation and spray drift Do not tank-mix with a product containing boron; do not mix in equipment previously used to apply a product containing boron unless the tank and spray equipment have been adequately cleaned. Undiluted Spotlight and 2,4-D amine concentrates are not compatible, and cannot be mixed together in the same supply tank when using injection equipment; however, combinations of Spotlight and 2,4-D ester are compatible for this purpose.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Pyridine

indaziflam (SPECT(i)CLE/SPECTICLE 20WSP HERBICIDE, SPECT(i)CLE/SPECTICLE FLO, SPECT(i)CLE/SPECTICLE G)

Warm season grasses only

Rate Specticle 20WSP: 2.5 to 5 oz/A; Do not exceed 7.1 oz/A per year; Specticle Flo: For single applications: 5 fl oz /A; for multiple applications: 3 to4.5 fl oz /A,, second application 90 days later. A crabgrass and goosegrass program: 3 to 4.5 fl oz/A with one subsequent application at same rate, 90 days after the first application.

Time Apply as a preemergence herbicide to warm season grasses only.

Remarks Indaziflam is a new preemergence herbicide that provides outstanding residual control (3 to 8 months) of goosegrass, crabgrasses and Poa annua, as well as many broadleaf weeds and annual sedges. It is a non-staining, low-odor formulation. Its primary site of action is the newly developing root of a germinated weed seedling. Necrosis or yellowing may be observed if the herbicide is applied to herbaceous tissue such as leaves and green stems of adjacent ornamental or sensitive turf types. Specticle carries a caution label and delivers the lowest amount of active ingredient than any other currently used preemergence herbicide in turf. Specticle applied prior to Poa annua germination will supply exceptional preemergence control while offering the flexibility of making later applications. Turf managers can receive an added benefit from an application of Specticle by being able to make applications up to 2 months after peak germination.

Caution May cause unacceptable injury to creeping and colonial bentgrass, annual bluegrass, roughstalk bluegrass, tall fescue, Kikuyugrass, perennial ryegrass, annual ryegrass and Kentucky bluegrass. Indaziflam requires rainfall or irrigation after application to activate the herbicide and provide maximum control. If insufficient soil moisture is present, this might allow weeds to emerge from deeper soil layers where sufficient soil moisture for the germination of the weed seeds is available. If making more than one application per year, allow a minimum of three months between applications.

Site of action Group 29: Inhibition of cellulose biosynthesis

Chemical family Alkylazine

isoxaben (Gallery 75 Dry Flowable, Gallery SC Specialty Herbicide, Quali-Pro Isoxaben 75 WG Herbicide)

Rate 1.33 lb/A or 0.5 oz or 14 g/1,000 sq ft

Time Apply before weed seed germinates.

Remarks A preemergence herbicide that controls susceptible broadleaf weeds as they germinate. It is root-absorbed and has limited herbicidal activity once weeds emerge. Available as a dry flowable material. Controls chickweeds, clovers, Oxalis species, pineappleweed, narrowleaf plantain, spurge, and many other weeds.

Site of action Group 21: inhibits cell wall synthesis Site B

Chemical family Benzamide

MCPA (Dagger 5.2LB MCPA Ester Herbicide, MCPA-4 Amine, Nufarm Rhomene MCPA Broadleaf Herbicide, NuFarm Rhonox MCPA Ester Herbicide, Riverdale MCPA L.V.4 Ester, Sword Selective Herbicide, Wildcard Herbicide)

Rate 0.25 to 4 pints/A

Time Apply to actively growing broadleaf weeds listed on label.

Remarks A foliar- or root-absorbed translocated herbicide available in amine and sodium salts and in ester formulations. Its activity and spectrum of weed control are very similar to 2,4-D.

Caution MCPA may injure sensitive grasses such as bentgrass (turf) and roughstalk bluegrass if applied at high rates or during periods of environmental stress.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Phenoxy acetic acid

MCPP (Mecoprop, Gordons Prof T/O Mecomec 4 Turf Herbicide, Riverdale MCPA p-4 Amine, many other products)

Rate Broadcast applications: 0.75 lb ae/A; Spot treatments: 1.2 lb/A to areas no larger than 1,000 sq ft; 1.45 oz/1,000 sq ft or 64 oz/A

Time Apply to actively growing broadleaf weeds on label.

Remarks A foliar-absorbed translocated herbicide available in amine and potassium salt (mixes) formulations. It is effective on chickweeds when used alone but is weak on other broadleaf weeds. It is best used in mixtures with 2,4-D and dicamba, where it broadens the spectrum of weed control and reduces injury to sensitive grasses. MCPP is safer on bentgrass lawns and greens than any other phenoxy compound. Limit broadcast applications to 0.75 lb ae/A total in no more than two applications per year, at least 30 days apart. Limit spot treatments to 1.2 lb ae/A total in no more than two applications per year, at least 30 days apart. Do not apply by air or within 25 ft of water. Reentry interval is 48 hr.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Phenoxy acetic acid

mesotrione (Tenacity)

Rate Use 4 to 8 fl oz/A in 30 gal water for both pre- and postemergence control. For new seedlings, use 5 to 8 fl oz/A. For bentgrass control use 5 fl oz/A in 30 gal of water. Do not apply more than 16 oz/A year or 0.5 lb/A.

Time Pre- and postemergence in established turf, and prior to or during seeding of certain turfgrasses during turf renovation.

Remarks Tenacity is a systemic preemergence and postemergence herbicide for the selective contact and residual control of weeds in turfgrasses. Applied preemergence, weeds absorb Tenacity during emergence from soil. Dry conditions after application may reduce the preemergence activity. If rain (0.15 inches) has not fallen within 10 days after a preemergence application, activate with 0.15 inches of irrigation. Used postemergence, susceptible weeds absorb Tenacity through foliar contact and soil absorption. Foliage of treated weeds cease growth after application, then turn white (loss of chlorophyll); death may take up to 3 weeks. A repeat application is required after 2 to 3 weeks for improved postemergence weed control. Add a nonionic surfactant in postemergence applications. Tenacity may temporarily whiten turfgrass foliage. In general, symptoms appear 5 to 7 days after application and last for several weeks. A repeat application to the same site causes less whitening of plant tissue. Tenacity is an effective herbicide for weed control prior to or during seeding of certain turfgrasses during turf renovation. Do not apply to newly germinated turfgrass until it has been mowed two times, or approximately 4 weeks after emergence. Young actively growing weeds are easiest to control. Efficacy will be reduced under moisture stress or when applied to mature weeds. Tenacity can be tank-mixed with other herbicides, but check label for tank-mixtures already tested. Herbicides not listed on the label as being tested for tank-mixtures must be tested for compatibility, safety, and efficacy before treating large areas. In established turf, Tenacity is more effective as a postemergence application unless combined with another soil active herbicide. Tenacity should be combined with a preemergence herbicide for extended control of key annual monocot weeds such as crabgrass and foxtail. Use sites include noncrop areas: golf courses, sod farms, athletic fields, parks, residential and commercial properties, cemeteries, airports, and lawns. Do not use on golf greens. Maintain a 5-ft buffer between treated areas and putting greens. Do not exceed 5 fl oz/A per application to perennial ryegrass or fine fescues, or mixed stands that contain greater than 50% perennial ryegrass and/or fine fescue. Withhold traffic on treated areas until spray has dried, and irrigate lightly to move product from turf foliage before resuming normal irrigation to prevent movement onto sensitive species such as bentgrass. Do not plant any crop other than turfgrass species for 18 months after the last application of Tenacity because injury may occur. Do not apply an organophosphate or carbamate insecticide within 7 days of a Tenacity application as turf injury may occur. Do not apply by air or through any type of irrigation system. Do not apply more than 16 oz/A per year (maximum of 0.5 lb/A of mesotrione per year). Reentry interval is 12 hr. Do not use grass clippings from treated turf as mulch around trees or in vegetable/flower gardens.

New Seedings/New Lawn Establishment: Apply Tenacity at 5-8 fl oz/A in at least 30 gal of water/A prior to seeding or post seeding of tolerant turfgrass species listed on this label, except fine fescue. Tenacity may reduce density of fine fescue seedings. Tenacity can be used on grass seed blends that contain less than 20% by weight of hard or fine fescue. Tenacity will control many monocot and dicot weeds that compete with and slow the establishment of the turfgrass stands. Apply at grass seeding or close to seeding for best performance. Avoid spraying on newly germinated turfgrass plants. Wait until the newly germinated turf has been mowed two times or four weeks after emergence (whichever is longer) before making a postemergence application.

Spot Application of Tenacity: apply at 1 gal/1,000 sq ft

Spray Mix

Rate of Tenacity (teaspoons)

NIS adjuvant (teaspoons)

2 gal

1

3

Site of action Group 27: inhibits 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvatedioxygenase (4-HPPD)

Chemical family Triketone

metsulfuron-methyl (Alligare MSM, DuPont Escort XP Herbicide, Manor Selective Herbicide, Mansion Turf Herbicide, MSM 60DF, Metcel VMF Herbicide, Metsulfuron 60 EG. Patriot Selective Herbicide, Rometsol Herbicide)

Rate Use 0.25 to 0.5 oz Manor/A. Do not apply more than 0.5 oz/A within 9 month period.

Time Apply to actively growing weeds listed on the label.

Remarks For use on golf courses, lawns, noncrop nonagricultural areas, recreation areas, sod farms, and ornamental turf. Safe for use on Kentucky bluegrass and fine fescues. Do not apply to turf less than 1 year old, or to turfgrass stressed by drought, insects, disease, cold, temperatures above 85°F on cool-season grasses, or poor fertility; injury may result. Adding nonionic surfactant of at least 80% ai at 0.25% v/v (1 quart/100 gal) provides best performance but may temporarily increase turf chlorosis. Use spray volumes of 20 to 80 gal/A and pressures of 25 to 35 psi. Use large droplet size to minimize spray drift Mansion can control annual sowthistle, Canada thistle, common chickweed, common groundsel, yarrow, curly dock, dandelion, henbit, lambsquarters, plantain, prostrate knotweed, prostrate spurge, wild carrot, wild garlic, and woodsorrel (Oxalis).

Caution When overseeding, wait 2 months after application. Do not apply to any body of water, including streams, irrigation water, or wells. Do not apply where water may run off onto agricultural land; crop injury may result.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Sulfonylurea

penoxsulam (Sapphire, Sapphire Specialty Herbicide, )

Rate 0.25 to 0.5 pints/A (0.01 to 0.02 lb ai/A)

Time Apply to actively growing weeds.

Remarks For use on bentgrasses, Tall fescue and perennial ryegrasses on golf courses, lawns, general turf, school outdoor areas, and sod farms. Under heat stress conditions use only 0.25 pints (0.01 lb ai)/A on perennial ryegrass and tall fescues. Enhances control of white clover, dandelion, sedge weeds, ground ivy, chickweed, oxalis, bittercress, pigweed, kyllinga, sagebrush, broadleaf plantain, and English lawn daisy.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Sulfonylaminocarbonyltriazolinone

quinclorac (Quali-Pro Quinclorac 75DF, Drive XLR8 Herbicide, Eject 75DF, Halts Pots Crabgrass Control Turf Herbicide, NuFarm Quinclorac SPC 75 DF Herbicide)

Rate Use 0.367 oz/1,000 sq ft or 0.75 lb ai/A. On creeping bentgrass use 0.123 to 0.245 oz/1,000 sq ft or 0.25 lb ai to 0.50 lb ai/A in 2 to 3 applications. See label for timing of applications.

Time Apply postemergence to actively growing weeds listed on label. Apply preemergence before weed seeds germinate

Remarks A selective herbicide with both preemergence and postemergence activity that kills tough broadleaf weeds and grasses such as clover; dandelion; English daisy; foxtail; common, slender, and thymeleaf speedwell; and crabgrass. Drive herbicide enters susceptible weeds through foliage and roots. It is translocated throughout the plant and accumulates in the meristematic regions, where it disrupts plant growth. It offers residual control of annual and perennial weeds through germinating seed uptake. Residual control is 60 to 90 days, depending on application rates, soil type, weed species, and moisture availability. After applying Drive, plants exhibit leaf and stem twisting and chlorosis. Grasses exhibit stunting, chlorosis, and a gradual reddening, followed by necrosis. Use methylated seed oil or crop oil concentrate additives for greater efficacy; see label for rates.

Caution Do not mow 2 days before or after applying Drive 75DF, to maximize weed control. Mulch clippings on site the first three mowings after applying. Do not irrigate for 24 hours after applying; however, irrigation 2 to 7 days after application is recommended. Drive XLR8 is a liquid formulation that is rainfast in approximately 30 minutes. The liquid formulation can also be mixed with other postemergence broadleaf herbicides to increase the spectrum of control. Do not apply within 4 weeks after perennial ryegrass or Kentucky bluegrass seedlings emerge. Applications before or after seeding a turf area will not significantly interfere with germination and growth of Kentucky bluegrass, annual bluegrass, buffalograss, tall fescue, or annual and perennial ryegrass. Must be applied before seedlings emerge. Fine fescues and creeping bentgrasses are only moderately tolerant. Colonial bentgrass is highly susceptible to damage from Drive. Do not apply to golf course collars or greens. Do not allow drift to desirable plants, especially those in the Solanaceae family such as tomatoes, eggplants, and bell peppers. Do not use clippings as mulch or compost around flowers, ornamentals, or trees, or in vegetable gardens.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Quinoline carboxylic acid

sulfentrazone (Dismiss Turf Herbicide)

Rate Dismiss turf herbicide will control or suppress sedges when applied at a rate of 4 to 12 fl oz/A. Apply the highest rate consistent with the rate needed for turfgrass safety (See Table 1 on label). Rates lower than 12 fl oz/A will generally control sedges for at least 60 days. Good coverage is needed for optimum control of sedges. For optimum control of purple nutsedge, split applications are recommended. Apply 4 to 8 oz/A as an initial application followed by a second application when evidence of actively growing purple nutsedge is visible.

Time This herbicide is a selective postemergence herbicide which controls broadleaf weeds and sedges in established turf area including, but not limited to, residential and institutional lawns, athletic fields, commercial sod farms, golf course fairways and golf course roughs. First application of this product can be made following the second mowing providing the turfgrass has developed into a uniform stand with a good root system. Creeping bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, rough bluegrass, fine fescue, tall fescue and perennial ryegrasses are tolerant to this herbicide. Postemergence applications of Dismiss Turf Herbicide will control or suppress bedstraw, black medic, Carolina geranium, common and mouse ear chickweed, cinquefoil, clover, dandelion, curly dock, evening primrose, flare, galinsoga, goldenrod, ground ivy, common groundsel, henbit, prostrate knotweed, kochia, common lambsquarters, common mallow, parsley piert, redroot, smooth and tumble pigweed, common purslane, shepherd's purse, Pennsylvania smartweed, red sorrel, speedwell, prostrate and spotted spurge, wild violet, wild garlic, wild onion and creeping and yellow woodsorrel.

Remarks Temporary discoloration of some turf types may result from use of surfactants or adjuvants. High temperatures and high relative humidity may increase the risk of temporary discoloration. Use of surfactants is not recommended. Discolored leaf tissue will be removed with mowing. To also reduce potential for discoloration, do not apply Dismiss Turf Herbicide on turfgrass that is weakened by weather, mechanical, chemical disease or other related stress. Maintain proper cultural practices, such as adequate moisture and fertility levels, to promote healthy turf growth.

Caution This pesticide is toxic to marine/estuarine invertebrates. Do not apply directly to water, to areas where surface water is present or to intertidal areas below the mean high water mark. Drift and runoff may be hazardous to terrestrial and aquatic plants in neighboring areas. Do not use on coarse soils classified as sand which have less than 1% organic matter. Do not apply to golf course putting greens or tees. Do not use on turfgrasses other than those listed on the label. Temporary turfgrass discoloration has been observed when Primo has been either tank mixed or applied within 7 days of a Dismiss Turf Herbicide application. It is recommended that Primo applications be made 7 days prior to, or after Dismiss Turf Herbicide application to reduce risk of turfgrass discoloration. Do not apply to sod within three months of harvest. It is also recommended that the sod be established for at least 3 months before an application of Dismiss turf herbicide.

Site of action Group 14: protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor

Chemical family Triazinone

sulfosulfuron (Certainty Turf Herbicide)

Rate 1.25 oz/A. To control tall fescue, use another application of the same rate, 3 to 4 weeks after the first application.

Time Apply postemergence when target weeds are actively growing and not disturbed by mowing for at least 2 days after application.

Remarks This is a postemergence, systemic herbicide with limited soil residual activity. It provides postemergence control of many annual and perennial sedges, grass and broadleaf weeds on highly managed turf, sod farms and native grass sites. This product is for use on the warm season turfgrasses listed here: bermudagrass (hybrid or common), bahiagrass, buffalograss, centipedegrass, kikuyugrass, St. Augustinegrass, seashore paspalum and zoysiagrass. It is no longer recommended for use on cool season turfgrasses. Use of this product may affect the growth pattern or delay green-up of the desirable turf. For St. Augustinegrass and seashore paspalum, test this product on a small area prior to wide-scale use to determine if this product is suitable for your management and cultural practices. This product can control roughstalk bluegrass (Poa trivialis). It can be applied to residential and commercial turf sites, including apartment complexes, athletic fields, cemeteries, golf course fairways, tees and roughs, hotel properties, office complexes, parks, public turf areas, retail sites, storage facilities, school grounds, sod and turfgrass seed farms and other highly managed turfgrass areas. This product is absorbed by the roots and foliage of the plants, and rapidly inhibits the growth of susceptible weeds. Susceptible weed growth stops within 24 hours of treatment even though visual symptoms are slow to develop. Susceptible weeds usually show yellowing or browning within 2 to 3 weeks. Warm, moist conditions following application will accelerate herbicidal activity. Cold, dry conditions will delay herbicidal activity. Weeds stressed by drought are less susceptible to this product.

Caution Do not apply directly to or within 4 ft of golf course putting greens. Using this chemical on permeable soils, particularly where the water table is shallow, may contaminate ground water. Heavy rain or irrigation within 2 hours after application may wash product off foliage, and a repeat application may be required for adequate control. Do not exceed a total of 2.66 oz/A product per year. Avoid contacting roots or foliage of susceptible nontarget vegetation, as injury may occur. This includes areas where this product may be washed or moved into contact with roots of desirable vegetation. Susceptible plants may be injured if seeded or transplanted into treated areas unless otherwise directed on the label. Applications in the fall, after temperatures have dropped and regular mowing is no longer required, may be more likely to injure turf and may delay spring green-up. Product may result in temporary chlorosis and discoloration and may affect the growth pattern of desirable turf. Symptoms generally appear 7 to 10 days after application and typically go within 21 to 28 days. Perennial ryegrass, fine fescues, and creeping bentgrass are more sensitive to this product.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family sulfonylurea

topramezone (Pylex Herbicide)

Rate Broadcast applications for perennial broadleaf weeds: Option A) 3 applications at 1.0 to 1.33 fl oz/A or 0.023 to 0.030 fl oz/1,000 sq ft applied on a 3 to 4 week interval. Option B) 2 applications at 1.5 fl oz/A or 0.034 fl oz/1,000 sq ft applied on a 3 to 4 week interval. Broadcast applications for grassy weeds: 1.0 to 1.5 fl oz/A or 0.023 to 0.034 fl oz/1,000 sq ft. Do not apply more than 2 fl oz/A per application or 4 fl oz/A per year.

Time A single application should be made when weeds are actively growing; it should be applied with a crop oil concentrate (COC) at 0.5% v/v. Weeds should not be under stress from lack of water, excessive water, low fertility, mowing shock, excessive hot or cold temperatures, or injury from other herbicide applications. Pylex can be used for weed control during turfgrass establishment when establishing from seed. Once grass has been seeded, no applications should be made for 28 days after seeding.

Remarks Pylex can be used for control of clover, ground ivy, oxalis, speedwell, Canada thistle and many other broadleaf weeds in Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, fine fescue, and perennial ryegrass. It has shown variable tolerance on bentgrass (moderate to severe injury) and annual bluegrass (minimal to moderate injury) at labeled use rates (see grassy weed control for grasses controlled). May be applied postemergence to residential (spot spray only) and nonresidential turf. See the special use directions on the label for residential and athletic fields. Pylex is absorbed by leaves, roots, and shoots, and is translocated to the growing points of susceptible weeds. Pylex controls weeds by inhibiting carotenoid biosynthesis. Soon after application, treated weeds turn white due to chlorophyll loss and growth stops.

Caution Do not apply directly to water, or to areas where surface water is present. Do not apply this product through any type of irrigation system. Do not allow people or pets to enter the treated area until sprays have dried. Do not apply to golf course collars or greens. Maintain a 5-ft buffer between treated areas and bentgrass greens. Do not make applications to drought-stressed turfgrass and/or drought-stressed weeds. Do not apply to exposed feeder roots of trees or ornamentals, or within the dripline of trees and other ornamental species. Do not use grass clippings as mulch around flowers, ornamentals, trees, or in vegetable gardens. Do not apply by air. Do not apply an organophosphate or carbamate insecticide within 7 days of applying Pylex, because turfgrass injury may result. To reduce movement into sensitive species, such as bentgrass, avoid foot and vehicle traffic until spray has dried.

Site of action Group 27: HPPD inhibitor

Chemical family Phenyl pyrazole ketone

triclopyr (Turflon Ester Specialty Herbicide, Turflon Ester Ultra, Alligare Boulder 6.3)

Rate Broadcast applications: 0.33 to 0.75 fl oz/1,000 sq ft; Spot treatment: 0.375 to 0.75 fl oz/1,000 sq ft. No more than 1.5 fl oz/1,000 sq ft per application when spot treating.

Time Apply to actively growing weeds listed on label.

Remarks A foliar- and root-absorbed translocated herbicide available by itself in ester formulation, and in mixtures with 2,4-D or clopyralid. Effective against violets, ground ivy, and oxalis in Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, and tall fescue. Triclopyr generally is less effective by itself than in mixtures. It can be tank-mixed with commonly used three-way herbicide mixtures to increase the weed control spectrum.

Caution To minimize turf injury, do not treat if turf is under heat or drought stress. Repeat applications at least 4 weeks apart. Mixtures with triclopyr in ester form have injured fine fescue turf after early spring applications in western Oregon. Do not apply to exposed roots of shallow-rooted trees and shrubs. Injury to Deodara cedar is associated with mixtures containing triclopyr in ester form when applied around bud break. Triclopyr may injure bentgrass (turf) and roughstalk bluegrass. Keep out of lakes, streams, and ponds. Toxic to fish.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Pyridine