Annual Grass Weeds

Preemergence

benefin + trifluralin (Team 2G)

Rate 75 to 120 lb Team 2G/A

Time Apply to established turfgrasses for preemergence annual grass control.

Remarks Available only in granular form. The 2:1 ratio of benefin to trifluralin effectively controls summer annual grass and Poa annua. It kills seedlings as they germinate with no postemergence activity. Team does not leach. See label for timings of multiple split applications for preemergence control.

Caution Do not use on bentgrass mowed to less than 0.5 inch high. Irrigation or rain is required to activate the product.

Site of action (both) Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family (both) dinitroaniline

bensulide (Bensumec 4LF or Pre-San Granular)

Rate 6.25 gal (50 pints)/A or 18 fl oz of Bensumec 4LF/1,000 sq ft; 80 lb/A or 1.8 lb of Pre-San 12G/1,000 sq ft. Maximum of 4.6 lb/1,000 sq ft per year; 180 lb/A or 4.1 lb/1,000 sq ft of Pre-San 7G.

Time Apply to established turfgrasses on golf courses only.

Remarks Bensulide is available in granular and EC formulations. It is effective on most warm-season annual grasses and annual bluegrass. It kills seedlings by inhibiting root growth during germination and has no postemergence activity. Bensulide is unlikely to leach in most soils. It generally is safe on all established cool-season grasses on golf courses and residential lawns.

Caution May stunt roots on putting turf if applied repeatedly or at excessive rates. Product must be watered in.

Site of action Group 8: lipid synthesis inhibitor but not an ACCase inhibitor

Chemical family Organophosphorus

corn gluten meal (WOW!-WithOut Weeds-Supreme)

Rate 20 lb/1,000 sq ft

Time This product is a preemergence herbicide for use in controlling crabgrass, creeping bentgrass, smartweed, dandelions, redroot pigweed, purslane, lambsquarters, foxtail, barnyardgrass, and bermudagrass. There is not postemergence activity from WOW. Any weeds that have germinated before application of WOW will not be controlled.

Remarks Weed control research in the Pacific Northwest has found this product to be an effective fertilizer, however, it was not an effective product to reduce weed populations as a preemergence product.

Caution Do not use on grass which has been recently sown. WOW contains 10% slow-release nitrogen.

Site of action Unknown

Chemical family organic product

DCPA (Dacthal Flowable Herbicide)

Rate Use 14 pints of Dacthal Flowable in 40 to 100 gal of water/A (1 pints/3 to 7 gal/3,000 sq ft) for control of crabgrass. For annual bluegrass control, use a late summer or early fall application before weed seed germination of 10 quarts of Dacthal Flowable in 40 to 100 gal of water/A (0.5 pints/3 to 7 gal/3,000 sq ft) should supplement the early spring application.

Time A selective preemergence herbicide for control of crabgrass and other annual grasses and certain broadleaf weeds. It can be used as a postemergence application for control of creeping speedwell (Veronica filiformis) It is for use on nonresidential lawns, golf courses, cemeteries, athletic fields, parks, sod farms and institutional areas where turfgrass is grown.

Remarks Applications to turfgrass should be watered within 4 hours with 0.1 to 0.2 inches of water via irrigation. One application applied in early spring before weed seed germination usually provides seasonal control.

Caution Not recommended for use on bentgrass putting greens. Wait 60 days after application before any new reseeding is done.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Phthalic acid

dithiopyr (Armortech CGC 2L, Dimension 2EW Specialty Herbicide, Dimension EC Specialty Herbicide, Dimension Ultra 40WP Specialty Herbicide, Dimension 270-G Turf & Landscape Ornamental, Dithiopyr 2L Specialty Herbicide, Quali-Pro Dithiopyr 40 WSB Specialty Herbicide, many fertilizer products with dithiopyr on granules.)

Rate Using maximum rates of Dithiopyr 40SB is equivalent to 4 water-soluble pouches/A or 0.46 oz/1,000 sq ft (1.25 lb/A of product) per application, and 12 water-soluble pouches/A or 1.38 oz/1,000 sq ft (3.75 lb/A of product) per year, respectively. For Dimension EC, use no more than 1.5 fl oz/1,000 sq ft (2 quarts/A) per application, and no more than 4.5 fl oz/1,000 sq ft (6 quarts/A) per year, using split of sequential applications.

Time Apply preemergence when soil is about 50°F (about when forsythia blooms). Apply postemergence before crabgrass and annual bluegrass are in first tiller stage.

Remarks Dithiopyr is available in EC, 40WSB and 40WSP formulations, as granules, and on fertilizers. Gives preemergence control of crabgrasses, foxtails, barnyardgrass, and a number of broadleaf weeds, including purslane, Oxalis species, and spurge. Also gives preemergence control of annual bluegrass (Poa annua). Gives postemergence control of crabgrass up to the first tiller growth stage. Dithiopyr appears to be safe on mature creeping bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, and some fine fescues.

Caution Do not use on seedling turf; injury will be severe. Do not apply to turf under environmental stress.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Pyridine

ethofumesate (Poa Constrictor Herbicide, Prograss Herbicide, Prograss SC Herbicide, Thrasher)

Rate For new seedings applied preemergence of weeds: 0.2 to 3 pints/A. Postemergence applications: Use 2.25 to 3 pints/A no later than the 4-leaf stage of the weed. Harder-to-control weeds must be treated by the 2-leaf stage of the plant. For established grasses: Use 2.25 to 3 pints/A both pre- and postemergence for perennial ryegrass and tall fescue.

Time Apply to grasses listed as tolerant on label before annual bluegrass reaches the 4-leaf stage.

Remarks Available only as an emulsifiable concentrate (EC). Effective preemergence and early postemergence activity on many annual grasses and broadleaf weeds. Can use selectively in new seedings of perennial ryegrass to control annual bluegrass, which is susceptible from germination to the 3- to 4-leaf stage. Repeat fall treatments may control mature annual bluegrass in areas east of the Cascades. West of Cascades, ethofumesate has never successfully controlled mature annual bluegrass.

Caution Severely injures most fine fescues. Mature hard fescue turf is more tolerant than Chewings or red fescue. Generally safe on perennial ryegrass, except on mature turf in spring when injury can be severe. Fall applications to bentgrass are highly phytotoxic. Bentgrass may be slightly injured at other times of year.

Site of action Group 16: unknown

Chemical family Benzofuran

mesotrione (Tenacity)

Rate 4 to 8 fl oz/A in 30 gal water for both pre- and postemergence control; For new seedlings, use 5 to 8 fl oz/A; For bentgrass control use 5 fl oz/A in 30 gal water. Do not apply more than 16 oz/A per year or 0.5 lb/A.

Time Pre- and postemergence in established turf, and prior to or during seeding of certain turfgrasses during turf renovation.

Remarks Tenacity is a systemic pre- and postemergence herbicide for selective contact and residual control of weeds in turfgrasses. Applied preemergence, weeds absorb Tenacity during emergence. Dry conditions after application may reduce preemergence activity. If rain (0.15 inch) does not fall within 10 days after a preemergence application, activate with 0.15 inch irrigation. Used postemergence, susceptible weeds absorb Tenacity through foliar contact and soil absorption. Foliage of treated weeds stops growing after application, then turns white (loss of chlorophyll); and death may take up to 3 weeks. A repeat application is required after 2 to 3 weeks for improved postemergence weed control. Add a nonionic surfactant in postemergence applications. Tenacity may temporarily whiten turfgrass foliage. In general, symptoms appear 5 to 7 days after application and last several weeks. A repeat application to the same site causes less whitening of plant tissue. Tenacity effectively controls weed before or during seeding of certain turfgrasses during turf renovation. Do not apply to newly germinated turfgrass until it has been mowed twice, or about 4 weeks after emergence. Young, actively growing weeds are easiest to control. Efficacy on mature weeds is reduced under moisture stress. Tenacity can be tank-mixed with other herbicides, but check label for tank-mixtures already tested. Herbicides not listed on label as being tested for tank-mixtures must be tested for compatibility, safety, and efficacy before treating large areas. In established turf, Tenacity is more effective as a postemergence application unless combined with another soil-active herbicide. Combine Tenacity with a preemergence herbicide for extended control of key annual monocot weeds such as crabgrass and foxtail.

Use sites include noncrop areas: golf courses, sod farms, athletic fields, parks, residential and commercial properties, cemeteries, airports, and lawns. Do not use on golf greens. Maintain a 5-ft buffer between treated areas and putting greens. Do not exceed 5 fl oz/A per application to perennial ryegrass or fine fescues or mixed stands with more than 50% perennial ryegrass and/or fine fescue. Withhold traffic on treated areas until spray dries, and irrigate lightly to move product from turf foliage before resuming normal irrigation, to prevent movement onto sensitive species such as bentgrass. Do not plant any crop other than turfgrass species for 18 months after the last application of Tenacity, or injury may occur. Do not apply an organophosphate or carbamate insecticide within 7 days of a Tenacity application, as turf may be injured. Do not apply by air or through any type of irrigation system. Do not exceed 16 oz/A Tenacity (0.5 lb mesotrione/A) per year. Restricted-entry interval is 12 hr. Do not use grass clippings from treated turf as mulch around trees or in vegetable/flower gardens.

New Seedings/New Lawn Establishment: Apply Tenacity at 5 to 8 fl oz/A in at least 30 gal water/A prior to seeding or post seeding of tolerant turfgrass species listed on this label, except fine fescue. Tenacity may reduce density of fine fescue seedings. Tenacity can be used on grass seed blends that contain less than 20% by weight of hard or fine fescue. Tenacity will control many monocot and dicot weeds that compete with and slow the establishment of the turfgrass stands. Apply at grass seeding or close to seeding for best performance. Avoid spraying on newly germinated turfgrass plants. Wait until the newly germinated turf has been mowed two times or four weeks after emergence (whichever is longer) before making a postemergence application.

Spot Application of Tenacity: apply at 1 gal/1,000 sq ft

Spray Mix

Rate of Tenacity (teaspoons)

NIS adjuvant (teaspoons)

2 gal

1

3

Site of action Group 27: inhibits 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvatedioxygenase (4-HPPD)

Chemical family Triketone

oxadiazon (Quali-Pro Oxadiazon 50 WSB Herbicide, Quali-Pro Oxadiazon SC Herbicide, Ronstar Flo Herbicide, Ronstar G Herbicide or Ronstar 50WSP Herbicide, Starfighter L Herbicide)

Rate Use Quali-Pro Oxadiazon 2G for crabgrass, goosegrass and crowfoot control at 100 to 200 lb/A (2 to 4 lb ai) or 2.25 to 4.5 lb/1,000 sq ft. Late applications are not recommended and may not be fully effective. For annual bluegrass control use the high end of the label rate. See label for other specific weed rates. Use Ronstar FLO at 1.85 to 2.8 fl oz/1,000 sq ft.

Time Apply to established Kentucky bluegrass and perennial ryegrass turf.

Remarks Effective preemergence against most warm-season annual grasses, annual bluegrass, and some broadleaf weeds. Labeled only for use on mature Kentucky bluegrass and perennial ryegrass turf. The maximum rate of Ronstar FLO is 3.7 fl oz/1,000 sq ft with no more than 2 applications per year. In areas of heavy weed infestation only, 7.4 fl oz/1,000 sq ft or 2.52 gal product/A per year (8 lb ai per year) are allowed.

Caution Phytotoxic to bentgrass and fine fescues. May injure Kentucky bluegrass and perennial ryegrass if applied to wet foliage.

Site of action Group 14: protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor

Chemical family Oxadiazole

pendimethalin (Pre-M or Drexel PIN-DEE 3.3 T&O Herbicide, Everris Corral 2.68G, Hammerkop Hydrocap)

Rate 1.49 to 1.98 lb ai/A Pre-M and 1.53 to 2.01 lb ai/A Corral

Time Apply before weed seeds germinate in spring.

Remarks Controls most warm-season annual grasses, annual bluegrass, Oxalis species, and spotted spurge when applied preemergence. It is safe on most established cool-season turfgrasses.

Caution Injures bentgrass and stains concrete and stone. Product should only be applied to bentgrass that is mowed at 0.5 inch or higher. Bentgrass lawns should use a 2.5 lb/A rate with a repeat application of 1.7 to 2.5 lb/A in 6 to 8 weeks.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Dinitroaniline

prodiamine (Barricade 4L, Barricade 65WG, Cavalcade 65WDG, Evade 4FL, Halts Pro, Proclipse 65WDG, Alligare Prodiamine 65WDG Herbicide, Quali-Pro Prodiamine 4L Herbicide, Quali-Pro Prodiamine 65 WDG Herbicide, Resolute 65WG Herbicide, Resolute 4FL Herbicide, many fertilizer products with active ingredient on granules)

Rate Use Barricade 4FL at 10 to 24 fl oz/A or 0.23 to 0.55 fl oz/1,000 sq ft at maximum rate for cool season turfgrasses. Use Barricade 65WG at 0.5 to 1.5 lb/A or 0.185 to 0.55 fl oz/1,000 sq ft for Kentucky bluegrasses per growing year. Maximum application rate for fine fescue is 1.15 lb/A or 0.42 fl oz/1,000 sq ft. Maximum application rate for bentgrass is 1.0 lb/A or 0.37 fl oz/1,000 sq ft per growing year.

Time Apply before weed seeds germinate.

Remarks Available as a 65% DF, WG or WDG, or 4 F or FL herbicide for use on established cool- and warm-season turfgrasses. If used properly, prodiamine gives preemergence control of crabgrass, yellow foxtail, goosegrass, annual bluegrass, prostrate spurge, and several other weeds.

Caution Water in thoroughly to avoid loss of activity from photodecomposition. Safe at label rates on tall fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, creeping red fescue, and creeping bentgrass. Not intended for use on putting greens.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Dinitroaniline

prodiamine + sulfentrazone (Echelon 4SC Herbicide)

Rate Echelon 4SC at rates from 0.25 to 1.125 lb ai/A (8 to 36 fl oz/A) or 0.184 to 0.826 fl oz/1,000 sq ft depending upon type of grass being sprayed on the site. See Table 1 on label for the exact rate for each species of grass, as well as some comments below in the Remarks section.

Time Apply for pre- and early postemergence control of crabgrass and for selective pre- and postemergence control of annual grasses, broadleaf weeds, and sedges in turf sites including residential and institutional lawns, athletic fields, commercial sod farms, golf course fairways and roughs, roadsides, utility rights-of-way, railways, and industrial areas.

Remarks Existing weed roots and shoots take up Echelon; it also prevents growth of newly emerged weed seedlings. Echelon may be used on well-established seeded, sodded, or sprigged turfgrasses. Make first application after the second mowing, providing grass has developed into a uniform stand with a good root system. Applied as directed, creeping bentgrass, fine fescue, and perennial ryegrasses tolerate 0.25 to 0.375 lb ai/A of Echelon 4SC. Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue tolerate 0.57 to 0.75 lb ai/A of Echelon 4SC. Do not exceed 1.125 lb ai/A per calendar year. Sulfentrazone has good activity on creeping buttercup.

Caution Turf may be injured if it is not well established or has been weakened by stresses such as unfavorable weather, disease, chemicals, or mechanical influences. Do not apply to golf course greens and tees. Do not apply to areas where dichondra, colonial bentgrass, velvet bentgrass, or annual bluegrasses are desirable species. Treated sod preharvest interval is 90 days. Do not apply with adjuvants or surfactants.

Site of action (prodiamine) Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor; (sulfentrazone) Group 14: protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor

Chemical family (prodiamine) dinitroaniline; (sulfentrazone) triazinone

siduron (Tupersan)

Rate Tupersan at the time of seeding: 1.5 to 4.5 oz/1,000 sq ft, or 4 to 12 lb/A for a single application. Sequential applications should use 2.5 to 4.5 oz + 1.5 to 2.5 oz, or 6 to 12 lb product/A + 4 to 6 lb/A. Fall plantings with a single application should use 6 to 9 oz /1,000 sq ft or 16 to 24 lb/A.

Time Apply for warm-season annual grass control at time of seeding of cool-season turfgrasses.

Remarks Available in wettable powder (WP) and granular formulations. Safe on most cool-season turfgrasses. Can be used on new seedings of cool-season grasses since it is active only against warm-season annual grasses. Will not control annual bluegrass.

Caution May injure some bentgrass varieties. "Penncross," "Seaside", "Highland," and "Astoria" are tolerant.

Site of action Group 7: photosystem II inhibitor

Chemical family Substituted urea

simazine (Simazine 4L Flowable Herbicide, Agrisolutions Simazine 90DF, Princep Liquid SIM-TROL 90DF)

Do not use with cool season grasses

Rate 1 quart/A or 0.75 fl oz/1,000 sq ft of Princep 4L for control of annual bluegrass in warm season grasses. For control of other weeds, use 1 to 2 quarts/A or 0.75 to 1.5 fl oz product/1,000 sq ft. If applying SIMTROL 90DF, use from 2.2 to 4.4 lb/A according to soil texture type. Refer to "Turfgrasses Table" on page 10 of SIMTROL 90DF label to determine rate for soil type.

Time Apply simazine before weeds emerge or after removal of weed growth.

Remarks Simazine is primarily taken up by the roots of the weedy plants. Adequate moisture is necessary to move the herbicide into the root zone. Simazine is effective in controlling annual bluegrass, annual ryegrass, barnyardgrass, burclover, common chickweed, crabgrass, cheatgrass, goosegrass, groundsel, henbit, common lambsquarters, pigweed, pineappleweed, common purslane, ragweed, Russian thistle, shepherdspurse, smartweed, speedwell, tansy mustard and wild oats. Most cool season grasses are sensitive to simazine. This product is for use mainly with warm season grasses such as bermudagrasses or buffalograss. Biotypes of some of the weeds listed on the label have been reported to show some resistance after multiple applications over many years.

Caution For use with warm season grasses such as bermudagrass and zoysiagrass. Do not use with cool season grasses. Do not apply simazine to sand and loamy sand soils where the water table is close to the surface and where these soils are very permeable. Aerial applications are prohibited. Do not apply to frozen ground.

Site of action Group 5: photosystem II inhibitor

Chemical family Triazine

Postemergence

dithiopyr (Dimension 270-G Turf & Landscape Ornamental, Dimension 2EW Specialty Herbicide, Dimension 2EC Specialty Herbicide, Dimension Ultra 40 WP Specialty Herbicide, Dithiopyr 2L Specialty Herbicide, many products on fertilizer granules.)

Rate Dimension can be used for early postemergence of crabgrass if it is still at the 1 tiller stage. A nonionic surfactant can be added at 0.5% (v/v) (2 quarts/100 gal spray) to improve postemergence control of crabgrass. Use-maximum rates of Dithiopyr 40SB is equivalent to 4 water-soluble pouches/A or 0.46 oz/1,000 sq ft (1.25 lb/A) per application, and 12 water-soluble pouches/A or 1.38 oz/1,000 sq ft (3.75 lb/A of product) per year, respectively. For Dimension EC, use no more than 1.5 fl oz/1,000 sq ft (2 quarts/A) per application and no more than 4.5 fl oz/1,000 sq ft (6 quarts/A) per year using split of sequential applications.

Time Apply to established turf before crabgrass begins tillering.

Remarks Controls crabgrass postemergence if applied before crabgrass produces tillers. After tillering, dithiopyr must be mixed with either MSMA or fenoxaprop to achieve acceptable control.

Caution Do not use on seedling turf or turf growing under environmental stress.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Pyridine

fenoxaprop (Acclaim Extra Herbicide)

Rate Acclaim Extra to suppress common bermudagrass at 20 fl oz/A or 0.46 fl oz/1,000 sq ft, as soon as bermudagrass or Johnsongrass begins to grow. Repeat applications every 28 to 35 days to continue growth suppression. Do not apply more than 120 fl oz/A per season (2.75 fl oz/growing season).

Time Apply to established turfgrasses for specific annual grasses listed on label. Grasses controlled include smooth and large crabgrass, goosegrass, barnyardgrass, foxtail species, Panicum species, Johnsongrass (seedling), sandbur, sprangletop, and Japanese stiltgrass.

Remarks Available as an emulsifiable concentrate (EC). It is effective as a postemergence warm-season annual grass herbicide and is safe on most cool-season turfgrasses. It is foliar absorbed, slow acting, and should be applied with 40 to 80 gal/A for thorough coverage. Do not mow areas for 24 hr after application to allow penetration and translocation into the grassy weeds. Grass clippings can interfere with thorough spray coverage of the target weeds.

Caution Weed control may be reduced if fenoxaprop is mixed with common broadleaf herbicides. Fenoxaprop may injure Kentucky bluegrass and bentgrasses. Repeat applications may be needed for control. Do not exceed a total of 120 fl oz/A per growing season. If turfgrass was stunted after a previous application, avoid applying again until turfgrass completely recovers.

Site of action Group 1: acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor

Chemical family Aryloxyphenoxy propionate

MSMA (Agri-Star Weed-Hoe)

Rate 4 fl oz per 4 gal water/1,000 sq ft on young plants or at temperatures of 90°F.

Time Apply to established turfgrass for annual grass control, nutsedge or sandbur control.

Remarks Available in liquid formulations. Arsenicals are generally effective but may require two applications at 10- to 14-day intervals to achieve complete control.

Caution Safe for use on established bluegrass, zoysiagrass and bermudagrass lawns. Arsenicals may injure bentgrass and fine fescues. Soil should be moist but not saturated at time of treatment.

Site of action Group 17: not well understood

Chemical family Organoarsenical

sethoxydim (Segment Herbicide)

Rate To control 6-inch tall grasses: use Sethoxydim SPC at 2.14 pints/A or 8 fl oz/1,000 sq ft. To control 12-inch tall grasses: use 3.75 pints/A or 1.4 fl oz/1,000 sq ft. Spot Treatment: for grasses 6 inches tall, use a 1.5% solution; for grasses 12 inches tall and perennial grasses, use 2.25% solution. To calculate required amount for recommended percent solution, see Tables 9 and 10 on label.

Time Apply to actively growing grassy weeds as aerial, broadcast, and/or spot spray at the rates and growth stages listed on the label. The most effective control will result from making postemergence applications of Sethoxydim SPC early, when grassy weeds are small. Delaying application allows grassy weeds to exceed the maximum size stated and may prevent adequate control.

Remarks Use for control of annual and perennial grass weeds in fine fescue. Apply Sethoxydim SPC in the Pacific Northwest using 5 to 50 gal for spray solution/A. Better control is achieved if the site is irrigated 2 to 4 days before the application of Sethoxydim SPC is made. Will control barnyardgrass, colonial and highland bentgrasses, large and smooth crabgrass, downy brome, German velvetgrass, goosegrass, Johnsongrass, quackgrass, annual ryegrass, field sandbur, seedling tall fescue, volunteer barley, oats, rye and wheat, and wild oats. No additives or adjuvants are recommended for use with Sethoxydim SPC when applied to turf. Sethoxydim SPC is rainfast within one hour. Sethoxydim SPC does not control annual bluegrass or rattail fescue.

Caution Use standard high-pressure pesticide flat fan or hollow cone nozzles spaced up to 20 inches apart. Do not use flood, whirl chamber, or controlled droplet applicator nozzles as erratic coverage can cause inconsistence weed control. Do not use selective application equipment such as wiper applicators or recirculating sprayers. Do not use treated area as a pasture. Do not apply through any type of irrigation equipment. Do not apply to turf that is under stress.

Site of action Group 1: acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor

Chemical family Cyclohexanedione

sulfosulfuron (Certainty Turf Herbicide)

Rate 1.25 oz/A. If you wish to control tall fescue, use another application of the same rate at 3 to 4 weeks after the first application.

Time Apply postemergence when target weeds are actively growing and not disturbed by mowing for at least 2 days after application.

Remarks A postemergence, systemic herbicide with limited soil residual activity. Gives postemergence control of many annual and perennial sedges, grass and broadleaf weeds on highly managed turf, sod farms, and native grass sites in warm season turfgrasses only. A selective herbicide that can be used over the top of many perennial warm-season and selected cool-season turfgrasses. Apply only when grasses are actively growing and mowing is required. Product can control roughstalk bluegrass (Poa trivialis). Can apply to residential and commercial turf sites, including apartment complexes, athletic fields, cemeteries, golf course fairways, tees, and roughs, hotel properties, office complexes, parks, public turf areas, retail sites, storage facilities, school grounds, sod and turfgrass seed farms, and other highly managed turfgrass areas. Product is absorbed by both roots and foliage and rapidly inhibits susceptible weeds, whose growth stops within 24 hours of treatment even though visual symptoms are slow to develop. Susceptible weeds usually show yellowing or browning within 2 to 3 weeks. Warm, moist conditions after application accelerate herbicidal activity; cold, dry conditions delay activity. Weeds stressed by drought are less susceptible.

Caution For use on warm season turfgrasses only. Do not apply directly to or within 4 ft of golf course putting greens. Using this chemical on permeable soils, particularly where the water table is shallow, may contaminate ground water. Heavy rain or irrigation within 2 hours after application may wash product off the foliage, and a repeat application may be required for adequate control. Do not exceed a total of 2.66 oz/A per year. Avoid contact with roots or foliage of susceptible nontarget vegetation; injury may occur. This includes areas where product may be washed or moved into contact with roots of desirable vegetation. Susceptible plants may be injured if seeded or transplanted into treated areas, unless otherwise directed on label. Fall applications, after temperatures drop and regular mowing is no longer required, may increase risk of turf injury and may delay spring green-up. Applications may result in temporary chlorosis and discoloration and may affect desirable turf's growth pattern; symptoms generally appear 7 to 10 days after application and typically go away in 21 to 28 days. Perennial ryegrass, fine fescues, and creeping bentgrass are more sensitive to this product.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family sulfonylurea

topramezone (Pylex Herbicide)

Rate Broadcast applications for perennial broadleaf weeds. Option A: 3 applications at 1.0 to 1.33 fl oz/A or 0.023 to 0.030 fl oz/1,000 sq ft applied on 3 to 4 week interval. Option B: 2 applications at 1.5 fl oz/A or 0.034 fl oz/1,000 sq ft .applied on 3 to 4 week interval. Broadcast applications for grassy weeds: 1.0 to 1.5 fl oz/A or 0.023 to 0.034 fl oz/1,000 sq ft. DO NOT apply more than 2 fl oz/A per application or 4 fl oz/A/year.

Time A single application should be made when weeds are actively growing and should be applied with a crop oil concentrate (COC) at 0.5% v/v. Weeds should not be under stress from lack of water, excessive water, low fertility, mowing shock, excessive hot or cold temperatures, or injury from other herbicide applications. Pylex can be used for weed control during turfgrass establishment when establishing from seed. Once grass has been seeded, no applications should be made for 28 days. Seeding can occur any time after seeding or at the time of application.

Remarks Pylex provides postemergence control of bermudagrass and goosegrass in cool season turfgrasses. It can also be used for control of clover, ground ivy, oxalis, speedwell, Canada thistle, and many other broadleaf weeds in Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, fine fescue, and perennial ryegrass. It has shown variable tolerance on bentgrass (moderate to severe injury) and annual bluegrass (minimal to moderate injury) at labeled use rates (see grassy weed control for grasses controlled). May be applied postemergence to residential (spot spray only) and nonresidential turf. See special use directions on label for residential and athletic fields. Pylex is absorbed by leaves, roots, and shoots and is translocated to the growing points of susceptible weeds. Pylex controls weeds by inhibiting carotenoid biosynthesis. Soon after application, treated weeds turn white because of chlorophyll loss and growth stops.

Caution Do not apply directly to water or to areas where surface water is present. Do not apply this product through any type of irrigation system. Do not allow people or pets to enter the treated area until sprays have dried. DO NOT apply to golf course collars or greens. Maintain a 5-ft buffer between treated areas and bentgrass greens. Do not make applications to drought-stressed turfgrass and/or drought-stressed weeds. Do not apply to exposed feeder roots or trees or ornamental or within the dripline of trees and other ornamental species. Do not use grass clippings as mulch around flowers, ornamentals, trees, or in vegetable gardens. Do not apply by air. Do not apply an organophosphate or carbamate insecticide within 7 days of applying Pylex or turfgrass injury may result. To reduce movement into sensitive species such as bentgrass, avoid foot and vehicle traffic until spray has dried. Do not mow for two days before or after application.

Site of action Group 27: HPPD inhibitor

Chemical family Phenyl pyrazole ketone