Established Plantings-Directed Applications in Berry Rows

acetic acid (Weed Pharm Weed and Grass Killer)

Rate 15 to 30 gal product/a

Remarks 20% acetic acid. Apply as a directed application to actively growing small weeds. Application equipment must be hooded or shielded. Any contact with the crop will cause crop injury. Weed Pharm can be applied up to and including the day of harvest. Approved for organic production.

Caution This product is a contact, nonselective, herbicide. Avoid contact with desirable caneberry foliage, green bark, or fruit.

bentazon (Basagran)

Non-bearing only

Rate 0.75 to 1 lb ai/a (1.5 to 2 pints/a Basagran)

Time Spring to early summer, depending on growth stage of weeds.

Remarks Supplemental label (Arysta LifeSciences) for nonbearing crops. Useful for suppression and control of yellow nutsedge, Canada thistle, and musk thistle. For Canada thistle apply 2 pints/a when plants are between 8 inches tall and bud stage. Apply a second application 2 weeks later if needed. For nutsedge, apply 1.5 to 2 pints/a when plants are 6 to 8 in tall, and make a second application 7 to 10 days later if needed. Always add a crop oil concentrate. Use no more than 2 lb ai/a per year. Irrigate to make sure plants are actively growing before applying bentazon. Do not cultivate or mow for 5 days after application. Weeds growing under drought conditions may not be adequately controlled.

Caution Apply as a directed spray, away from the crop. Do not allow contact with foliage. Do not apply within one year of crop harvest.

Site of action Group 6: photosystem II inhibitor

Chemical family Benzothiadiazole

clethodim (Select Max)

Rate 0.07 to 0.12 lb ai/a (9 to 16 oz/a Select Max)

Time Apply postemergence to actively growing annual or perennial grasses as listed on label.

Remarks Consider environmental and plant growth conditions that affect leaf uptake (see label). Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant to improve efficacy. Use higher rates to control perennial grasses. Preharvest interval is 7 days.

Caution Do not exceed 64 fl oz/a (0.5 lb ai/a) per season. Do not apply over top of plants.

Site of action Group 1: acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor

Chemical family Cyclohexanedione

clove or clove leaf oil (Matratec)

Rate 5 to 8% dilution in 25 to 100 gal of water, depending on weed size, temperature, and sunlight intensity.

Time Before weeds are 6 inches tall.

Remarks OMRI listed and WSDA approved herbicide for in-crop use. Apply before crop emerges, or between rows after emergence; avoid contact with desirable foliage. Directed sprays or hooded sprayers are recommended to protect desirable foliage. Works best on annual weeds less than 6 inches. Performance may be erratic depending on environmental conditions. Bright sunlight improves efficacy. No preharvest or reentry interval.

d-limonene (lemongrass oil) (Green Match EX)

Rate 7% to 15% depending on weed size and species; 14% dilution rate, 20% for spot treatment of difficult to control weeds.

Time When weeds are less than 6 inches tall and up to fruit set.

Remarks Broad-spectrum, nonselective contact herbicide that does not translocate. Spot treatments allowed in bearing crops up to one week before harvest. Do not exceed 8.5 gal/a per application in bearing crops. OMRI listed, NOP compliant, and WSDA approved organic burndown herbicide for use in crop and noncrop sites. Foliage contacted by Green Match will be damaged. Directed sprays or hooded sprayers are recommended to protect desirable foliage. Coverage is very important. Leaf damage is visible within hours. Cool weather may slow activity. No reentry interval. Causes fast wilting or necrosis of the leaves due to removal of waxy cuticle

fluazifop (Fusilade DX)

Rate 0.25 to 0.375 lb ai/a (16 to 24 oz/a Fusilade DX) depending on target species and growth stage

Time Apply to actively growing grasses, or within 7 days after irrigation, as a directed spray with 1% crop oil or 0.25% nonionic surfactant.

Remarks Identify grasses and adjust rates depending on susceptibility and stage of weed growth, according to label instructions. Results often are erratic on grasses stressed from lack of vigor, drought, high temperature, or low fertility. More mature grasses and quackgrass can be controlled but may require two applications. Annual bluegrass and all fine fescues resist treatment. Inhibits fatty acid production, cell membranes, and new growth. PHI 1 day.

Caution Grazing is prohibited.

Site of action Group 1: acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor

Chemical family Aryloxyphenoxy propionate

glyphosate (numerous products)

Blackberry only

Rate Consult labels

Time Apply to actively growing weeds.

Remarks Avoid treatments in late summer when sugars move toward crown. Select application equipment to prevent crop injury by directing spray, or use low-pressure hand-held sprayers or selective applicators. Adjust concentration depending on equipment. Consult label about rate and time of application, especially for perennial weeds. Mixing additional surfactant or ammonium sulfate as label instructs may improve control of slightly stressed weeds. Preharvest interval is 14 days. If repeat applications are necessary, do not exceed a total of 10.6 lb ai/a per year. Inhibits production of three amino acids and protein synthesis.

Caution Grazing is prohibited. In raspberries, the herbicide moves throughout the plant; excessive injury prevents labeling and nondormant use in this crop. Repeated glyphosate applications have created resistant biotypes of ryegrass in Australian and Oregon orchards. To avoid weed resistance, rotate weed control practices and use products from different herbicide groups.

Site of action Group 9: inhibits EPSP synthase

Chemical family None generally accepted

glyphosate (several products)

Blackberry only

Rate Wiper: 33% solution

Remarks Mix 1 gal product with 2 gal water and wipe weeds, avoiding contact with desirable vegetation. In severe infestations, reduce equipment ground speed or apply in two directions to ensure contact with wiper. (See remarks above.)

Site of action Group 9: inhibits EPSP synthase

Chemical family None generally accepted

paraquat (Gramoxone Inteon, Parazone)

Rate 0.5 to 1 lb ai/a (2 to 4 pints/a Gramoxone Inteon; 1.3 to 2.7 pints/a Parazone)

Time Apply late winter or early spring before new shoots emerge, or late summer or fall after training new canes.

Remarks Adjust spray volume to thoroughly wet weeds. Add a nonionic surfactant or crop oil concentrate as label specifies, taking care to avoid anionic formulations that react in the tank to form insoluble precipitates. Acts as a contact herbicide; absorbs energy produced by photosynthesis, forming peroxides that disrupt living cells.

Caution A restricted-use herbicide. Do not ingest or inhale spray mist. Wear protective face shields, respirators, and clothing.

Site of action Group 22: photosystem I electron diversion

Chemical family Bipyridilium

sethoxydim (Poast)

Rate 0.47 lb ai/a (2.5 pints/a Poast)

Time Apply at optimum growth stage listed on the label; add 2 pints/a nonphytotoxic crop oil concentrate to improve leaf absorption.

Remarks Identify susceptible grasses. Control often is erratic if grasses are stunted or stressed from drought, high temperatures, or low fertility. Resistant grasses include annual bluegrass and all fine fescues, whereas quackgrass can be suppressed. Inhibits fatty acid production, cell membranes, and new growth. Preharvest interval is 45 days.

Caution Do not exceed 5 pints/a per season.

Site of action Group 1: acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor

Chemical family Cyclohexanedione