Established Plantings-Applications that Persist in the Soil

dichlobenil (Casoron CS and 4G)

Rate 1.96 to 3.92 lb a/a (1.4 to 2.8 gal/a CS formulation); 4 lb ai/a (100 lb/a Casoron 4G)

Time Apply midwinter, immediately before a cold rain to reduce volatility and enhance weed suppression.

Remarks Weigh and distribute uniformly exact quantities over precisely measured areas to ensure accurate applications. The CS formulation (liquid) may allow more precise application rates. In thornless evergreen blackberries, apply November 15 through February 15, but never on light-texture, sandy soils. Oregon results over 9 years suggest perennial weeds can be suppressed with 4-, 3-, and 2-lb ai/a rates applied during 3 consecutive years. Inhibits cellulose and cell wall formation. In new production areas, do not apply until 1 year after transplanting.

Caution Grazing livestock is prohibited. Do not apply during shoot emergence.

Site of action Group 20: inhibits cell wall synthesis Site A

Chemical family Nitrile

diuron (several products)

Rate 1.6 to 2.4 lb ai/a (2 to 3 lb/a of the 80% formulation or 1.6 to 2.4 quarts of 4L formulation)

Time Apply in winter as single application, or apply half-doses in October and March.

Remarks Reduce rate or rotate to other herbicides after weed control is achieved. Sprinkler irrigate if applied before fall rains begin. Spray soil around base of plant avoiding crop foliage. Can be rotated with simazine or other herbicides (except terbacil) to reduce weed shifts. (Inhibits photosynthesis.)

Caution Do not use within 1 year after planting. Do not use on plants being tip layered. Do not apply on very sandy or gravelly soils.

Site of action Group 7: photosystem II inhibitor

Chemical family Substituted urea

flumioxazin (Chateau SW)

Rate 0.19 lb ai/a (6 oz/a product) Maximum allowed per season: 0.19 lb ai/a (6 oz/a product)

Time Preferred timing is fall, to maximize potential of rain to activate the herbicide. In spring, apply no later than 7 days before harvest.

Remarks Supplemental label allows use west of the Cascades in specified counties of Oregon and Washington only. Apply to a weed-free surface. Flumioxazin has limited postemergence activity that can be enhanced by adding surfactants. Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant or 1% crop oil concentrate to enhance postemergence burndown activity. Tank mix with herbicides such as glyphosate, glufosinate, or paraquat to kill large weeds. Residual weed control will be reduced if vegetation prevents the spray from reaching the soil. Moisture is necessary to activate the herbicide for residual weed control. Dry weather after application may reduce effectiveness. Do not exceed 12 oz/a per application and 24 oz/a per year. Use the 6 oz/a rate if soil has significant amounts of sand or gravel.

Caution Do not apply to caneberries established less than 1 year. Avoid direct or indirect spray contact with foliage or green bark, particularly if using surfactants. Do not apply to soils that are susceptible to dispersal by wind. This herbicide can move to susceptible crops on soil particles and cause damage. Do not apply within 300 yards of nondormant pome fruit or stone fruit. Do not mow treated areas between budbreak and final harvest; dust created by mowing may injure susceptible plants.

Site of action Group 14: inhibits protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)

Chemical family N-phenylphthalimide

halosulfuron-methyl (Sandea)

Rate 0.035 to 0.06 lb ai/a (0.75 to 1.33 oz/a Sandea) Maximum allowed per season: 0.094 lb ai/a (2 oz/a product)

Time Pre- or postemergence (nutsedge control)

Remarks For nutsedge control, make a single postemergence application of at least 0.75 oz/a to nutsedge that has 3 to 5 leaves. Two applications are permissible if additional nutsedge plants emerge, but allow 45 days between applications. Do not irrigate for 3 to 4 days after application to maximize efficacy. Add a nonionic surfactant to improve activity. Preharvest interval is 14 days. Sandea also can be applied preemergence to control annual weeds including marestail and common groundsel. If small weeds are present, tank mix Sandea with a postemergence broad-spectrum herbicide. For good preemergence weed control, do not apply Sandea if excessive weed growth prevents contact with the ground. Preemergence control of nutsedge is poor.

Caution Minimize contact with raspberry and blackberry stems or foliage. Applications of Sandea should be made prior to primocane emergence or after cane burning. Do not apply more than 2 oz/a per year. Do not apply to plants less than 1 year old, or concentrate the spray in the crop row.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Sulfonylurea

indaziflam (Alion)

Rate 0.045 to 0.13 lb ai/a (3.5 to 5 fl oz/a Alion) Maximum allowed per season: 0.09 to 0.13 lb ai/a (7-10 fl oz/a product) depending on soil organic matter content

Time Apply late fall or early spring prior to bud swell. Apply as a directed application to the soil beneath the bushes.

Remarks For control of broadleaf and grass weeds. Do not allow spray to contact green stems or foliage, or unacceptable injury may occur.

Caution Do not apply more than 10 fl oz per year. Apply only to plants that have been in the ground one year or more. Rate is based on soil organic matter content. Do not apply to sandy soils or soils with greater than 20% gravel.

Site of action Group 29: disrupts cellulose biosynthesis

Chemical family Alkylazine

mesotrione (Callisto)

Blackberry and raspberry only

Rate 0.09 to 0.19 lb ai/a (3 to 6 fl oz/a Callisto) Maximum allowed per season: 0.19 lb ai/a (6 fl oz/a of product).

Time Apply prebloom or as a split application at 3 fl oz/a, no closer than 14 days apart.

Remarks For control of broadleaf weeds only. Consult labels for tank-mix suggestions. The use of a 1% v/v crop oil concentrate is recommended, but avoid adjuvants that may injure leaves.

Caution Do not apply after the onset of bloom stage or illegal residues may occur. Do not apply more than 6 fl oz per year.

Site of action Group 27: pigment synthesis inhibitor

Chemical family Triketone

napropamide (Devrinol DF-XT, Devrinol 2-XT)

Rate 4 lb ai/a (8 lb/a Devrinol DF-XT, 8 quarts/a Devrinol 2-XT)

Time Apply in fall through spring before weeds germinate, or apply foliar-active herbicide to control existing vegetation.

Remarks Irrigation or shallow incorporation is recommended for treatments made November through February, if no rain falls within 2 weeks after applying. Irrigate within 24 hours to wet soil 2 to 4 inches deep when applied March through October. Excessive plant residues on soil surface reduce performance. Inhibits root growth.

Site of action Group 15: inhibits very long chain fatty acid synthesis

Chemical family Acetamide

norflurazon (Solicam DF)

Blackberry and raspberry only

Rate 1.96 to 3.93 lb ai/a (2.5 to 5 lb/a Solicam DF)

Time Apply as directed spray from fall to early spring, before weeds emerge and when crop is dormant.

Remarks Soil surface must be weed free and relatively free from plant residues or debris. Apply only once per year. Temporary bleaching or chlorosis may occur. Inhibits yellow pigment formation and bleaches green chlorophyll. Preharvest interval is 60 days.

Caution Do not apply to nursery stock.

Site of action Group 12: bleaching; inhibits carotenoid biosynthesis

Chemical family Pyridazinone

oryzalin (Surflan AS)

Rate 2 to 6 lb ai/a (2 to 6 quarts/a Surflan AS)

Time Apply late fall or early spring to bare soil or after existing vegetation has been destroyed by tillage or use of a foliar-active herbicide.

Remarks Use higher rates or split treatments and apply in fall and spring for longer residual control. Irrigate with at least 0.5 inch water or rain to activate herbicide. Shallow cultivation can control newly germinated weeds without reducing herbicide activity. Allow 24 months before planting vegetables after berries. Inhibits mitosis, primarily in roots.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Dinitroaniline

pronamide (Kerb 50-W, Kerb SC)

Blackberry, raspberry, and boysenberry only

Rate 1 to 3 lb ai/a (2 to 6 lb/a Kerb 50-W; 2.5 to 7 pints/a Kerb SC)

Time Apply in fall or winter, preferably October to December when ground is not frozen.

Remarks ID-020020 SLN is for Kerb 50-W. Use lower rates on annual grasses, higher rates on perennial grasses such as quackgrass. Requires moisture from rain or irrigation for activation. Use only in berries established at least 3 months. Degraded by microorganisms at higher temperatures. Inhibits root growth.

Caution A restricted-use pesticide. Do not exceed one application per year.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Benzamide

rimsulfuron (Matrix SG)

Blackberry and raspberry only; Oregon and Washington only

Rate 0.0625 lb ai/a (4 oz/a Matrix SG)

Time Apply in spring or fall. Preemergence or early postemergence to actively growing weeds.

Remarks Supplemental label. Use a directed spray application and minimize spray contact with caneberry plants. Use only in berries that have gone through one growing season and are in good health. Matrix will cause chlorosis and/or stunting if applied to emerged primocanes. Avoid injury by applying before primocanes emerge or by directing the spray to avoid the growing points after canes are 3 ft or longer (and not lying on the ground). Tankmixing Matrix with other cane-burning herbicides such as Aim or Goal may lessen the effect of Matrix on primocanes. Preharvest interval is 21 days.

Caution Do not exceed one application per year. When applied as a banded treatment (50% band or less), Matrix SG may be applied twice per year.

Site of action Group 2: Acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Sulfonylurea

S-metolachlor (Dual Magnum)

Blackberry and raspberry only; Oregon and Washington only

Rate 0.95 to 1.90 lb ai/a (1 to 2 pints/a Dual Magnum)

Time Apply in early spring before weeds emerge.

Remarks Special local needs labels OR-110005 and WA-120002. Apply as a banded application to both sides of the plant row. Lower rates are suggested for canes established less than one year. Requires rainfall or irrigation to activate.

Caution Do not apply more than once at 1.90 lb ai/a rate per season. Preharvest interval is 28 days.

Site of action Group 15: inhibits very long chain fatty acid synthesis

Chemical family Acetamide

simazine (Princep 4L)

Rate 2 to 4 lb ai/a (2 to 4 quarts/a Princep)

Time Apply in winter as single application, or apply half-doses in October and March.

Remarks Reduce rate or rotate with other herbicides after weeds are controlled. Requires surface moisture to activate. Apply half-rate on plants less than 6 months old. Can be rotated with diuron or other herbicides (except terbacil) to reduce weed shifts. Do not apply when fruit is present, or illegal residues may result.

Site of action Group 5: photosystem II inhibitor

Chemical family Triazine

sulfentrazone (Zeus XC and other product names)

Rate 0.25 to 0.375 lb ai/a (8 to 12 fl oz/a of product)

Time Apply as a dormant application in the fall or spring to bare soil before weeds emerge.

Remarks Apply only to plants that have been in the ground at least 3 years. A hooded or shielded sprayer is required if application is made after petal fall. Requires 0.5 to 1.0 inch of water to activate; if adequate rainfall or irrigation is not received within 7 to 10 days after application, a shallow incorporation may be needed to obtain desired weed control.

Caution Do not apply to frozen ground. Do not apply more than 12 fl oz/a product (0.375 lb ai/a) per season. Avoid direct contact with stems or foliage.

Site of action Group 14: inhibits protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)

Chemical family Triazinone

terbacil (Sinbar)

Rate 0.8 to 1.6 lb ai/a (1 to 2 lb/a Sinbar)

Time Apply higher rate on fine-texture soils or soils high in organic matter, in fall or early spring before fruit set, while weeds are small.

Remarks Sprinkler irrigate if rain does not follow application in 2 weeks. Reduce rates by as much as half or rotate with other herbicides after weeds are controlled. Calibrate sprayer and apply with tractor-mounted, fixed-boom sprayer using a constant speed and delivery rate. Preharvest interval is 70 days.

Caution Do not apply on gravelly soils or soils containing less than 1% organic matter. Do not apply to weak plants or eroded areas with exposed roots. Treat only plantings that have been established for 1 year or more. Avoid use for 2 years if replanting is anticipated. Can be rotated with diuron or other herbicides (except simazine) to reduce weed shifts.

Site of action Group 5: photosystem II inhibitor

Chemical family Uracil