Stages of plant growth

Bolt-A seedstalk forms following development of rosette.


  • Tillering: Additional shoots are developed from the crown.
  • Jointing: Stem internodes begin to elongate.
  • Boot: Upper leaf sheath swells due to growth of a developing spike or panicle.
  • Heading: Seed head is emerging from the sheath.

Crook-As seedling emerges from the soil before stem becomes erect; used in beans and peas.

Flag-In onions, cotyledon leaf must be free of the loop stage and before first true leaf appears; in cereals, the sheath and leaf have formed in which the head will emerge.

Layby-Time of last cultivation.

Loop-In onions, cotyledon leaf begins to emerge and before tip is free.

Spike-In corn, at first emergence before first true leaf is readily observed.