Bolt-A seedstalk forms following development of rosette.
- Tillering: Additional shoots are developed from the crown.
- Jointing: Stem internodes begin to elongate.
- Boot: Upper leaf sheath swells due to growth of a developing spike or panicle.
- Heading: Seed head is emerging from the sheath.
Crook-As seedling emerges from the soil before stem becomes erect; used in beans and peas.
Flag-In onions, cotyledon leaf must be free of the loop stage and before first true leaf appears; in cereals, the sheath and leaf have formed in which the head will emerge.
Layby-Time of last cultivation.
Loop-In onions, cotyledon leaf begins to emerge and before tip is free.
Spike-In corn, at first emergence before first true leaf is readily observed.