Tree Fruits and Nuts

Ed Peachey
Revised March 2014

Pome fruits: apples and pears

Stone fruits: apricots, peaches, nectarines, cherries, prunes, plums

Nuts: hazelnuts, walnuts, and chestnuts

Quick Reference Guide to

Herbicides Labeled for Use in Fruit and Nut Crops

  • Shaded boxes in the table below indicates the herbicide is labeled for use in that crop.
  • Non bearing (NB) indicates that these herbicides are only labeled for crops that will not be harvested for one year. They have a pre harvest interval of 365 days.
  • Herbicides recommended for newly planted crops are in bold italic

Ingredient common name (herbicide mode of action)

Product name example

Nuts

Pome fruit

Stone fruit

Rates

Chestnut

Hazelnuts

Walnut

Apple

Pear

Apricot

Cherry

Nectarine

Peach

Plums

Prunes

1. Applications that persist in soil and are soil active (herbicides in italics and bold are recommended for new plantings)

diuron (7)

Karmex

See label for crop-specific application rates.

dichlobenil (20)

Casoron

4 to 6 lbs ai/A
(100 to 150 lbs/A Casoron); apply in cold and wet weather.

isoxaben (21)

Trellis, Gallery

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

0.5 to 1 lbs ai/A
(0.66 to 1.33 lbs/A product)

indaziflam (29)

Alion

0.065 to 0.085 lbs ai/A
(5 to 6.5 oz/A product) depending on soil texture.

napropamide (3)

Devrinol

5 lbs ai/A
(50 lbs/A Devrinol 10-G)

norflurazon (12)

Solicam

1.97 to 7.8 lbs ai/A
(2.5 to 10 lbs/A Solicam)

oryzalin (3)

Surflan

2 to 6 lbs ai/A
(2 to 6 quarts/A Surflan)

pendimethalin (3)

Prowl

Prowl H2O: 1.9 to 6 lbs ai/A
(2 to 6.3 quarts/A) depending on desired length of weed control and crop.

pronamide (3)

Kerb

1 to 4 lbs ai/A (2 to 8 lbs/A). Rate depends on species present and soil texture.

simazine (5)

Princep

See product labels for rates. Princep Caliber 90 is a Special Local Needs label (OR-080038) for sweet cherries only).

terbacil (5)

Sinbar

NB

NB

NB

NB

0.4 to 0.8 lbs ai/A (0.5 to
1 lbs/A), newly established; 2 to 4 lbs/A Sinbar, bearing, depending on soil type.

trifluralin (3)

Treflan

0.5 to 1 lb ai/A
(1 to 2 pints/A Treflan 4EC)

trifluralin (3)+ isoxaben (21)+ oxyfluorfen (14)

Showcase

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

2.5 to 5 lbs ai/A
(100 to 200 lbs/A Showcase)

terbacil (5)

Sinbar

NB

NB

NB

NB

0.4 to 0.8 lbs ai/A (0.5 to
1 lbs/A), newly established; 2 to 4 lbs/A Sinbar, bearing, depending on soil type.

simazine (5)

Princep

See product labels for rates. Princep Caliber 90 is a Special Local Needs label (OR-080038) for sweet cherries only).

2. Applications that persist in soil and have both soil and foliar activity

flumioxazin (14)

Chateau

0.188 to 0.38 lbs ai/A (6 to
12 oz/A Chateau WDG). Slight differences in rates and uses in SW and WDG labels.

oxyfluorfen (14)

Goal

1.25 to 2 lbs ai/A
(5 to 8 pints/A Goal 2XL)

penoxsulam a (2)

Pindar GT

(1.5 to 3.0 pints/A)

rimsulfuron (2)

Matrix

0.063 lb ai/A
(4 oz/A Matrix FNV per year)

saflufenacil (14)

Treevix

0.045 lb ai/A (1 oz/A Treevix)

3. Postemergence contact and translocated herbicides

2,4-D (4)

2,4-D

Green sucker control in hazelnuts: 0.7 to 0.95 lb ai/A (1.5 to 2 pints/A Saber)

acetic acid

WeedPharm

carfentrazone (14)

Aim

Green sucker control in hazelnuts: 0.031 lb ai/A
(2 fl oz/A Aim EC)

clethodim (1)

Select Max

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

0.06 to 0.125 lbs ai/A
(6 to 8 oz/A Select)

clopyralid (4)

Stinger

Apples: 0.094 to 0.25 lb ae/A (0.25 to 0.66 pints/A Stinger) Others: 0.12 to 0.25 lbs ae/A

(0.33 to 0.66 pints/A Stinger)

diquat (22)

Reglone

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

0.375 to 0.5 lbs ai/A
(1.5 to 2 pints)

fluazifop (1)

Fusilade DX

NB

NB

NB

NB

0.25 to 0.375 lbs ai/A
(16 to 24 oz/A Fusilade DX). Refer to specific grassy weeds listed on label.

glyphosate (9)

Roundup

General weed control and grass suppression in row middles; read label carefully for crops listed and geographic location.

glufosinate (10)

Rely

Sucker control; 0.75 to 1.5 lb ai/A (3 to 6 quarts/A Rely)

halosulfuron (2)

Sandea

Apples: 0.035 to 0.094 lbs ai/A (0.75 to 2 oz/A); Nut crops: 0.031 to 0.063 lbs ai/A
(2/3 to 1 1/3 oz/A)

paraquat (22)

Gramoxone

Green sucker control in hazelnuts: 0.625 to 1 lb cation/A (2.5 to 4 pints/A Gramoxone; 1.7 to 2.7 pints/A Firestorm)

pyraflufen (14)

Venue

0.001 to 0.005 lbs ai/A

(0.7 to 4 fl oz product/A)

sethoxydim (1)

Poast

NB

NB

Grass suppression in row middles: 0.28 to 0.47 lbs ai/A (1.5 to 2.5 pints/A product)

TREE FRUITS AND NUTS—Site Preparation

glyphosate (numerous product names)

Rate Read label carefully for crops listed and geographic location.

Time Apply lower rates for actively growing annual weeds.

Remarks Consult label for higher rates and application time for perennial weeds. Additional surfactant or ammonium sulfate fertilizer sometimes improves control when weeds are growing slowly. Inhibits production of three amino acids and protein synthesis.

Caution If repeat treatments are necessary, do not exceed 10.6 lb ai/A (10.6 quarts) in 1 year. Grazing is prohibited. Repeated use of glyphosate has caused resistant biotypes to develop in some cropping systems.

Herbicide resistance management Repeated use of glyphosate in at least one orchard in western Oregon has selected for a resistant biotype of annual ryegrass. Overreliance on herbicides with a single site of action for orchard floor maintenance increases the risk of selecting for resistance in other weed species, and threatens the long-term usefulness of glyphosate for weed control in orchards and other crops. Several alternative, nonselective herbicides, listed below, have different sites of action and can be applied in rotation with glyphosate to reduce the risk of selecting for weeds that are resistant to glyphosate. Refer to “Managing Herbicide-resistant Weeds” in “Section C. Agrichemicals and their Properties” in this handbook for more information.

Steps to avoid or manage glyphosate resistance

  1. Use other means to manage weeds such as cultivation and mowing in orchards.
  2. Use preemergence herbicides where possible. Consider use of other nonselective herbicides such as glufosinate or paraquat with PPO inhibitors for burndown control.
  3. To delay development of resistance, use higher glyphosate rates and do not cut the rate.
  4. If continuing to use glyphosate in orchards or vineyard with resistant weeds, then tank mix glyphosate with other herbicides and make the application when the weeds are small.
  5. Do not let weeds go to seed.

Site of action Group 9: inhibits EPSP synthase

Chemical family None generally accepted

TREE FRUITS AND NUTS—Limited to New Plantings

clethodim (Select Max and others)

Rate 0.068 to 0.121 lb ai/A (9 to 16 oz/A Select Max)

Time Apply postemergence to actively growing annual or perennial grasses as listed on label.

Remarks Consider environmental and plant growth conditions that affect leaf uptake (see label for guidelines).

Caution Do not exceed 64 fl oz/A per season. Do not apply directly over the top of fruit or nut crops that may be used for rootstock, because crops may be injured.

Site of action Group 1: acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor

Chemical family Cyclohexanedione

geo-textiles

Available at agriculture and garden supply stores

Spunbonded fabrics (nonwoven) lightweight, extruded polypropylene fibers. Require mulch cover due to moderate UV light sensitivity. Weed roots and rhizomes can penetrate fabric unless removed before establishment. Cheapest option.

Woven fabrics moderate-weight polypropylene fibers woven into a mat. Can be used without mulch cover due to UV light stability. Weed roots and rhizomes can penetrate fabric, although tightness of weave can prevent some weeds. Moderate cost.

Laminates highly porous, dense poly film bonded to capillary fibers with a pressed, nonwoven bottom layer. The slick surface wets and dries rapidly, which prevents weed establishment, except for perennial rhizomes which can penetrate the laminate. Most expensive geo-fabric.

glyphosate (numerous product names)

Rate Read label carefully for crops listed and geographic location

Time Apply to actively growing weeds.

Remarks Additional surfactant or ammonium sulfate according to label instructions may improve control of slightly stressed weeds. Adjust concentration depending on equipment, or consult label about rate and time of application, especially for perennial weeds. Select application equipment to prevent crop injury, by directing spray or by using selective applicators.

Caution Do not let spray or mist contact foliage, green bark, suckers, or other parts of trees. Contact with other than natural brown bark can seriously damage crop. Grazing is prohibited. Inhibits production of three amino acids and protein synthesis.

Site of action Group 9: inhibits EPSP synthase

Chemical family None generally accepted

glyphosate (several products)

Rate Wiper: 33% solution

Time Apply 1 gal product with 2 gal water and wipe weeds, avoiding contact with desirable vegetation.

Remarks In severe infestations, reduce equipment ground speed or apply in two directions to ensure contact with wiper. (See remarks above.)

Site of action Group 9: inhibits EPSP synthase

Chemical family None generally accepted

glufosinate ammonium (Rely 280)

Rate 0.88 to 1.46 lb ai/A (1.5 to 2.5 quarts/A Rely)

Time Apply to actively growing weeds as a directed spray or spot treatment according to stage of weed growth.

Remarks Avoid drift onto, or treatment of desirable foliage or green bark during establishment year. Only trunks with calloused brown bark should be sprayed, unless they are protected with grow tubes or waxed containers.

Caution Do not exceed 4.5 lb ai/A per 12-month season. Do not graze or apply within 14 days of harvest.

Site of action Group 10: inhibits glutamine synthetase

Chemical family Phosphinic acid

isoxaben (Trellis, Gallery 75DF)

Rate 0.495 to 0.998 lb ai/A (0.66 to 1.33 lb/A product)

Time Apply late summer to early fall, in early spring, or immediately after cultivation to debris-free soil surface. Activate with 0.5 inch water or shallow cultivation before weeds begin to emerge.

Remarks Identify weeds and adjust rates according to charts listed on label. Chemical stability remains adequate when left on soil surface for 21 days. Gallery is labeled for non-bearing sites, only.

Caution Do not apply to newly transplanted crops until the soil has settled and cracks disappear.

Site of action Group 21: inhibits cell wall synthesis Site B

Chemical family Benzamide

isoxaben + trifluralin (Snapshot 2.5TG)

Rate 5 lb ai/A (200 lb/A Snapshot 2.5TG)

Time Apply to weed- and debris-free soil that has settled with water and is free of cracks after transplanting.

Remarks Activate within 21 days using 0.5 inch of water or shallow cultivation before weeds begin to emerge.

Caution Follow label instructions for repeat treatments.

Site of action (isoxaben) Group 21: inhibits cell wall synthesis Site B; (trifluralin) Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family (isoxaben) benzamide; (trifluralin) dinitroaniline

napropamide (Devrinol)

Rate 5 lb ai/A (50 lb/A Devrinol 10-G)

Time Apply immediately after transplanting to firmed soil, before weeds emerge. Between November and February, activate with rain or overhead irrigation within 2 weeks; the rest of the year, activate within 24 hours.

Remarks Where convenient, shallow mechanical incorporation appears to improve activation. Inhibits root growth.

Site of action Group 15: inhibits very long chain fatty acid synthesis

Chemical family Acetamide

oryzalin (Surflan)

Rate 2 to 6 lb ai/A (2 to 6 quarts/A Surflan AS)

Time Apply late fall to early spring to firmed soil; activate with rain or overhead irrigation or with shallow cultivation.

Remarks Not suggested for soils with more than 5% organic matter. Use higher rates for longer residual weed control. Avoid exposing transplant roots to treated soil. Inhibits cell division or mitosis, primarily in roots.

Caution Do not apply beneath newly planted trees until soil has settled and there are no cracks.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Dinitroaniline

oxyfluorfen (Goal 2XL)

Rate 1.25 to 2 lb ai/A (5 to 8 pints/A Goal 2XL)

Remarks Controls broadleaf weeds pre- and post- emergence depending on application rate and weed species.

Time Apply only to healthy and dormant trees. Direct spray toward the base of trees, avoiding direct plant contact. Acts as a contact herbicide, either directly on broadleaf weeds or at the soil surface as weeds emerge.

Site of action Group 14: inhibits protoporphyrinogen oxidase

Chemical family Diphenylether

pendimethalin (Prowl H2O)

Rate Prowl H2O: 1.9 to 6.0 lb ai/A (2 to 6.3 quarts/A), depending on crop and desired length of weed control. Prowl 3.3 EC: 1.98 to 3.96 lb ai/A (2.4 to 4.8 quarts/A)

Time Apply before weed emergence.

Remarks May be applied pre-transplant incorporated, pre-transplant surface, post-transplant surface incorporated, or post-transplant surface. Prowl is most effective if incorporated into soil with rain, irrigation, or shallow mechanical incorporation. Apply in single application or sequentially with an interval of 30 days or more. Do not exceed 4 quarts/A per year. Do not feed forage or graze livestock in treated orchards. Preharvest interval is 60 days.

Caution Do not apply over tops of trees with leaves, bud, or fruit. Apply directly to the ground beneath the trees or areas between rows.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Dinitroaniline

pronamide (Kerb)

Pome and stone fruits only

Rate 1 to 4 lb ai/A (2 to 8 lb/A); rate depends on species present and soil texture.

Time Apply in fall, after fruit is harvested.

Remarks Seedling trees must be one year old, fall transplanted trees one year in the ground, and spring transplanted stock 6 months in the ground. Results are optimum if soil is below 55°F and application is followed by rain or irrigation. Requires moisture from overhead irrigation or rain to activate. Inhibits root growth. Poor control of weeds of the Asteraceae (Composite) family.

Caution A restricted-use herbicide. Do not exceed 8 lb/A, or one application per year.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Benzamide

pyraflufen (Venue)

Rate 0.001 to 0.005 lb ai/A (0.7 to 4 fl oz product/A)

Remarks Supplemental label. Apply as a directed application to actively growing weeds less than 4 inches high, or rosettes less than 3 inches in diameter. Use lower rate for small weeds and higher rate for larger weeds. Do not exceed 6.8 fl oz/A or three applications per season. Allow at least 30 days between applications. Apply during postharvest until prebloom. Mixing this herbicide with another herbicide increases the weed spectrum and is highly recommended.

Caution This product is a contact, nonselective, broadleaf herbicide. Avoid contact with desirable foliage, green bark, or fruit.

Action in plant Inhibits protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) that disrupts cell membranes.

Site of action Group 14: protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor

Chemical family Phenylpyrazole

sawdust

Hazelnuts and other crops

Time Apply 3- to 4-inch layer of mulch immediately after planting to suppress weed germination and conserve soil moisture.

Remarks Avoid mounding or thickly layering near tree trunk to reduce crown rot and injury from mice and other vertebrate pests. Lower rates of registered herbicides for new plantings sometimes can enhance weed control if applied before spreading mulch.

sethoxydim (Poast)

Rate 0.28 to 0.47 lb ai/A (1.5 to 2.5 pints/A product)

Time Identify susceptible grasses and apply at optimum growth stage listed on the label.

Remarks Apply 2 pints/A of a nonphytotoxic crop oil concentrate to improve leaf absorption. Control often is erratic on grasses stunted or stressed from drought, high heat, or low fertility. Resistant grasses include annual bluegrass and all fine fescues; quackgrass can be suppressed. Inhibits fatty acid production, cell membranes, and new growth.

Caution Preharvest intervals are: 14 days for apple and pear; 25 days for apricot, cherry (sweet and sour), nectarine, and peach; 15 days for nuts; and 1 year for plums. Note maximum annual amounts per acre listed on label

Site of action Group 1: acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor

Chemical family Cyclohexanedione

trifluralin (Treflan 4EC)

Rate 0.5 to 1 lb ai/A (1 to 2 pints/A Treflan 4EC)

Time Apply preplant and incorporate immediately by cross-disking or rototilling.

Remarks If crops are planted between trees, follow directions for both crops. Inhibits mitosis in roots and shoots. Preharvest interval is 60 days.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Dinitroaniline

TREE FRUITS AND NUTS—Established Plantings—Applications that Persist in the Soil

dichlobenil (Casoron)

Rate 4 to 6 lb ai/A (100 to 150 lb/A Casoron)

Time Apply midwinter, immediately before a cold rain to reduce volatility and improve weed suppression.

Remarks Weigh and distribute over precisely measured area to ensure accurate application. Do not apply until 4 weeks after transplanting. Oregon results over 9 years suggest perennial weeds can be suppressed with 4-, 3-, and 2-lb ai/A rates applied during 3 consecutive years. Inhibits cellulose and cell wall formation.

Caution Grazing livestock is prohibited.

Site of action Group 20: inhibits cell wall synthesis Site A

Chemical family Nitrile

diuron (Karmex DF and others)

Rate See label for crop-specific application rates.

Time Apply higher rate in late fall, or split applications in spring and fall to bare soil, depending on soil type.

Remarks Add a foliar-active herbicide to control existing vegetation. Consult label for information on rates and soil types. Reduce rates after effective weed control is achieved. Can be rotated with simazine or other herbicides to reduce weed shifts. Inhibits photosynthesis.

Caution Do not apply to sandy or gravelly soils, or to full-dwarf rootstocks. Use only on trees established at least 1 year (3 years for peaches). Do not apply if nuts are on the ground.

Site of action Group 7: photosystem II inhibitor

Chemical family Substituted urea

flumioxazin (Chateau SW)

Rate 0.19 to 0.38 lb ai/A (6 to 12 oz/A Chateau SW). Refer to organic matter, soil types, and rates listed on label for various broadleaf weeds.

Time Stone fruit and pear: Between final harvest and budbreak and before weeds emerge. Apple: between final harvest and pink bud. Preferred timing is in fall when rain will activate the herbicide.

Remarks Supplemental label. Trees must be established one year unless protected from spray with non-porous wraps, grow tubes or waxed containers. Apply to a weed-free surface. Chateau has limited postemergence activity that is enhanced by adding surfactants. Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant or 1% crop oil concentrate to enhance postemergence burndown activity. Tank-mix with herbicides such as glyphosate, glufosinate, or paraquat to kill large weeds. Residual weed control will be reduced if vegetation prevents the spray from reaching the soil. Moisture is necessary to activate the herbicide for residual weed control. Dry weather after application may reduce effectiveness. Do not exceed 12 oz/A product per application or 24 oz/A per year. Use the 6-oz/A rate if soil has significant sand or gravel.

Caution Preharvest interval is 60 days. Do not apply to soils that are susceptible to dispersal by wind. This herbicide can move to susceptible crops on soil particles causing damage. Do not apply within 300 yards of non-dormant pears. Do not mow treated areas between budbreak and final harvest. Dust created by mowing may injure susceptible plants. Avoid direct or indirect spray contact with foliage or green bark. Do not apply to trees established less than 1 year.

Site of action Group 14: protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor

Chemical family Diphenylether

indaziflam (Alion)

Rate 0.065 to 0.085 lb ai/A (5 to 6.5 oz/A product) depending on soil texture

Time Apply in fall to early spring to firmed soil that does not have cracks.

Remarks Trees must be 3 years old or older. Existing vegetation must be controlled with glyphosate or burndown herbicides such as glufosinate or paraquat. Controls annual broadleaf and grass weeds and perennial weeds from seed only. Existing perennial/biennial weeds growing from roots will not be controlled. Rainfall or irrigation of ¼ inch or more within 3 weeks of application is required for maximum efficacy. Pre-harvest interval is 14 days.

Caution Avoid direct contact with foliage, green bark, or roots of desired species. Clean spray tanks thoroughly after use. Make sure soil is settled around trees and there are no cracks. Surface and groundwater advisories are included on the label because of potential to harm non-target aquatic organisms and potential for runoff and percolation to ground water. A well maintained and level vegetated buffer strip of 25 ft or more will help reduce runoff. Application of indaziflam 48 or more hours before rain is forecasted will reduce runoff potential.

Site of action Group 29: inhibits cellulose biosynthesis

isoxaben (Trellis, Gallery)

Pome and stone fruits; Nut trees (except chestnuts),

Rate 0.495 to 0.998 lb ai/A (0.66 to 1.33 lb/A product)

Time Apply late summer to early fall, in early spring, or immediately after cultivation to debris-free soil surface. Activate with 0.5 inch water or shallow cultivation before weeds begin to emerge.

Remarks Identify weeds and adjust rates according to charts listed on label. Chemical stability remains adequate when left on soil surface for 21 days. Preharvest interval in nuts is 60 days. Gallery is for non-bearing sites.

Caution Do not apply to newly transplanted crops until the soil has settled and cracks disappear.

Site of action Group 21: inhibits cell wall synthesis Site B

Chemical family Benzamide

napropamide (Devrinol)

Rate 5.0 lb ai/A (50 lb/A Devrinol 10G)

Time Apply fall through spring before weeds germinate, or mix with foliar-active herbicide to control existing vegetation.

Remarks Irrigation or shallow incorporation is recommended for treatments made November through February if no rain falls within 2 weeks after treatment. Irrigate within 24 hours to wet the soil 2 to 4 inches deep when applied March through October. Results are best if herbicide is mechanically incorporated into the soil immediately after application. Performance is reduced when excessive plant residues are on soil surface. Inhibits root growth.

Caution Do not apply to frozen soil. Do not graze livestock in treated area.

Site of action Group 15: inhibits very long chain fatty acid synthesis

Chemical family Acetamide

norflurazon (Solicam)

Rate 1.97 to 7.8 lb ai/A (2.5 to 10 lb/A Solicam)

Time Apply in fall to early spring, before weeds emerge, to soil relatively free of plant residues.

Remarks Activation requires ample irrigation or rain within 2 to 4 weeks. See label for rates and soil types. Orchards must be established at least 18 months except for newly planted apples, which can be treated after soil settles around tree roots. In cherries, use lower rates and rotate with other soil-applied herbicides to reduce chances of phytotoxic carryover. Avoid contact with fruit and crop foliage. Inhibits yellow pigment formation, causing bleaching of green chlorophyll.

Caution Do not graze livestock in treated area.

Site of action Group 12: bleaching; inhibits carotenoid biosynthesis

Chemical family Pyridazinone

oryzalin (Surflan AS)

Rate 2 to 6 lb ai/A (2 to 6 quarts/A Surflan)

Time Apply late fall or early spring to bare soil, or after tillage or a foliar-active herbicide has destroyed existing vegetation.

Remarks Use higher rates for longer residual control. Irrigate with 0.5 inch of water or rain to activate herbicide. Shallow cultivation can control newly germinated weeds without reducing herbicide activity. Inhibits mitosis, primarily in roots.

Caution Grazing is prohibited.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Dinitroaniline

oxyfluorfen (Goal 2XL)

Rate 1.25 to 2 lb ai/A (5 to 8 pints/A Goal 2XL)

Time Apply only beneath healthy trees. Direct spray toward tree base, avoiding direct plant contact. Acts as a contact herbicide, either directly on broadleaf weeds or at soil the surface as weeds emerge.

Remarks Controls broadleaf weeds pre- and post-emergence depending on application rate and weed species.

Site of action Group 14: inhibits protoporphyrinogen oxidase

Chemical family Diphenylether

pendimethalin (Prowl)

Rate Prowl H2O: 1.9 to 3.86 lb ai/A (2 to 6.34 quarts/A), depending on crop and desired length of weed control. Prowl 3.3 EC: 1.98 to 3.96 lb ai/A (2.4 to 4.8 quarts/A)

Time Apply before weed emergence.

Remarks May be surface applied preemergence or surface incorporated. Prowl is most effective if incorporated into soil with rain, irrigation, or shallow mechanical incorporation. Apply in single application or sequentially with an interval of 30 days or more. Do not exceed 4 quarts/A per year. Do not feed forage or graze livestock in treated orchards. Preharvest interval is 60 days.

Caution Do not apply over tops of trees with leaves, bud, or fruit. Apply directly to the ground beneath the trees or areas between rows.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Dinitroaniline

pronamide (Kerb)

Rate 1 to 4 lb ai/A (2 to 8 lb/A Kerb 50W)

Time Apply once a year, in fall after harvest, but before leaves drop and soil freezes.

Remarks Apply to soil relatively free of plant residues. Requires moisture from rain, snowmelt, or irrigation to activate. Use lower rates for annual grasses and susceptible broadleaf weeds; higher rates for perennials such as quackgrass. Use only on orchards established at least 6 mo. Inhibits root growth.

Caution A restricted-use herbicide. Do not graze livestock in treated area.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Benzamide

saflufenacil (Treevix 70% WDG)

Apple, pear, and walnuts only

Rate 0.044 lbs ai/A (1oz/A)

Time  Directed postemergence.

Remarks Controls annual broadleaf weeds and suppresses growth of some perennials. Does not control grasses. Adjuvants are needed to maximize burndown control. Up to 3 applications allowed each year (3 oz/A). Preharvest interval of 7 days on nuts. Trees must be established for 12 months. Protect bark of young (2-3 year old) trees. Consult label for accepted crop use.

Caution Contact with foliage will cause damage. Causes substantial but temporary eye damage; PPE includes protective eyeware.

Site of action Group 14: Protoporphyrinogen inhibitor

Chemical family Benzamide

simazine (Princep Caliber 90 and 4L)

Rate 2 to 4 lb ai/A (2 to 4 quarts/A Princep 4L; 2.2 to 4.4 lb/A Caliber 90)

Remarks Oregon special local needs label (OR-080038) on sweet cherries for Princep Caliber 90 for use where soils have some buffering capacity by partially adsorbing the herbicide. Tart cherries have a Section 3 label for Princep 4L in Oregon and Washington.

Caution Do not apply on light, sandy, or rocky soils with little organic matter. Trees must be established 2 years

or more. Note comments above. Apply 150 days before apple harvest.

Site of action Group 5: photosystem II inhibitor

Chemical family Triazine

terbacil (Sinbar 80)

Apples and peaches, all other uses are for non-bearing fruit trees

Rate 0.4 to 0.8 lb ai/A (0.5 to 1 lb/A), newly established; 2 to 4 lb/A Sinbar depending on soil type.

Time Apply spring or fall before weeds germinate or when they are in early seedling stage.

Remarks Consult label for rates, soil types, and organic matter contents. Reduce rates after weeds are controlled. Avoid use for 2 years if replanting is anticipated. Grazing is prohibited.

Caution Do not apply to sandy or gravelly soils or to soils with less than 1% organic matter. Use only on orchards established at least 3 years. Should be rotated other herbicides (except simazine) to reduce weed shifts. Do not contact crop foliage or fruit with herbicide spray. Has greater water solubility than diuron or simazine. Preharvest interval is 60 days. One application per year in Columbia Basin, WA.

Site of action Group 5: photosystem II inhibitor

Chemical family Uracil

trifluralin (Treflan 4EC)

Rate 0.5 to 1 lb ai/A (1 to 2 pints/A Treflan 4EC)

Time Apply preemergence for annual and broadleaf weed control, and incorporate with shallow tillage.

Remarks Consult label for calibration and application instructions. Use to supplement other weed control practices.

Caution Apply only when wind speed and direction minimize drift to non-target areas. Avoid contacting fruit and foliage with treated irrigation water. Prevent groundwater contamination by following all requirements of the irrigation system.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Dinitroaniline

TREE FRUITS AND NUTS—Established Plantings—Postemergence Contact and Translocated Herbicides

clethodim (Select Max, Arrow)

Non-bearing fruit and nut trees except nectarines, plums, and chestnuts

Rate 0.068 to 0.121 lb ai/A (9 to 16 oz/A Select Max); 0.094 to 0.125 lb ai/A (6 to 8 oz/A Arrow)

Time Apply postemergence to actively growing annual or perennial grasses as listed on label.

Remarks Consider environmental and plant growth conditions that affect leaf uptake (see label for guidelines).

Caution Do not exceed 0.5 lb ai/A per season. Do not apply directly over the top of fruit or nut crops that may be used for rootstock, because crops may be injured.

Site of action Group 1: acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor

Chemical family Cyclohexanedione

clopyralid (Stinger)

Stone fruits, apples

Rate 0.12 to 0.25 lb ae/A (0.33 to 0.66 pint/A Stinger)

Time Make 1 to 4 broadcast applications to Canada thistles that have emerged, but to rosettes before bud stage and at least 30 days before harvest.

Remarks Including apples (supplemental label) and stone fruits (apricots, Chickasaw plums, Damson plums, fresh prunes, Japanese plums, nectarines, peaches, plums, plumcots, sweet cherries, and sour cherries). Postemergence control of clover, dandelion, horseweed, nightshade (black and hairy), annual sowthistle, Canada thistle, musk thistle, and vetch. Do not exceed a total of 0.66 pint/A product per year. Apply in 10 gal/A of water or more.

Caution Preharvest interval is 30 days.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Pyridine

fluazifop-p-butyl (Fusilade DX)

Non-bearing in hazelnuts, walnuts, apples and pears; bearing in stone fruit

Rate 0.25 to 0.375 lb ai/A (16 to 24 oz/A Fusilade DX). Refer to specific grassy weeds listed on label.

Time Apply to actively growing grasses or within 7 days after irrigation as a directed spray with 1% crop oil or 0.25% nonionic surfactant.

Remarks Identify grasses and adjust rates depending on susceptibility and stage of weed growth as label instructs. Results often are erratic on grasses stressed from lack of vigor, high temperature, low fertility, or drought. More mature grasses and quackgrass can be controlled but may require two applications. Annual bluegrass and all fine fescues resist treatment. Inhibits fatty acid production, cell membranes, and new growth.

Caution Do not exceed 4.5 pints/A total per season. Preharvest interval is 14 days. Grazing is prohibited.

Site of action Group 1: acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor

Chemical family Aryloxyphenoxy propionate

glyphosate (numerous product names)

Rate Spray: read label carefully for crops listed and geographic location

Time Apply to actively growing weeds.

Remarks Select application equipment to prevent crop injury by directing spray, or by using selective applicators. Adjust concentration depending on equipment, or consult label about rate and time of application, especially for perennial weeds. Avoid treating root suckers in late summer when spraying wild blackberries or other weeds. Additional surfactant or ammonium sulfate according to label may improve control of slightly stressed weeds. Inhibits production of three amino acids and protein synthesis.

Caution Do not treat pear root suckers. Do not spray foliage or green bark. Preharvest interval is at least 14 days. If repeat applications are necessary, do not exceed a total of 10.6 lb ai/A per year. Grazing is prohibited. Repeated glyphosate applications have created resistant biotypes of ryegrass in Oregon. To avoid weed resistance, rotate and mix weed control practices.

Site of action Group 9: inhibits EPSP synthase

Chemical family None generally accepted

glyphosate (several products)

Rate Wiper: use 33% solution

Remarks Apply 1 gal product with 2 gal water and wipe weeds; avoid contact with desirable vegetation. In severe infestations, reduce equipment ground speed or apply in two directions to ensure wiper contact. See remarks above.

Site of action Group 9: inhibits EPSP synthase

Chemical family None generally accepted

glufosinate ammonium (Rely)

Rate 0.75 to 1.5 lb ai/A (3 to 6 quarts/A Rely)

Time Apply to actively growing weeds as a directed spray or spot treatment according to stage of weed growth.

Remarks Avoid drift to or treatment of desirable foliage or green bark during establishment year.

Caution Do not exceed 4.5 lb ai/A per 12-month season. Do not graze or apply within 14 days of harvest.

Site of action Group 10: inhibits glutamine synthetase

Chemical family Phosphinic acid

halosulfuron (Sandea)

Apples and nut crops only

Rate Apples: 0.035 to 0.094 lb ai/A (0.75 to 2 oz/A); Nut crops: 0.031 to 0.063 lb ai/A (2/3 to 1 1/3 oz/A)

Time Apply in spring when nutsedge is not drought stressed.

Remarks Supplemental label. Maximize the interval between application and irrigation. Trees must be established at least 12 months. Apply as a directed application at the base of the trees. Sandea also has soil residual activity and controls several broadleaf species, in addition to suppression of yellow nutsedge.

Caution Take extreme care to avoid applying to stems, leaves, roots, or green bark of trees. Avoid spray drift onto adjacent crops. Clean spray tank carefully.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Sulfonylurea

oxyfluorfen (Goal 2XL)

Rate 1.25 to 2 lb ai/A (5 to 8 pints/A Goal 2XL)

Time Apply only to healthy trees. Direct spray toward tree base, avoiding direct plant contact. Acts as contact, either directly on broadleaf weeds or at soil surface as weeds emerge. Weeds must be small for postemergence control.

Remarks Controls broadleaf weeds pre- and post-emergence depending on application rate and weed species.

Site of action Group 14: inhibits protoporphyrinogen oxidase

Chemical family Diphenylether

paraquat (Gramoxone Max, Firestorm)

Rate 0.625 to 1 lb cation/A (2.5 to 4 pints/A Gramoxone, 1.7 to 2.7 pints/A Firestorm)

Time Apply as a directed spray toward tree base; ensure complete wetting when weeds are small.

Remarks Add a nonionic surfactant or crop oil concentrate as label specifies; take care to avoid anionic formulations that react in the tank to form insoluble precipitates. Acts on contact; absorbs energy produced by photosynthesis, forming peroxides that disrupt living cells.

Caution A restricted-use herbicide. Do not ingest or inhale spray mist. Wear protective shields, respirators, and clothing. Do not let spray contact foliage, fruit, or young tree trunks. Do not graze treated areas.

Site of action Group 22: photosystem I electron diversion

Chemical family Bipyridilium

rimsulfuron (Matrix FNV)

Rate 0.063 lb ai/A (4 oz/A Matrix FNV per year)

Time Applied before or shortly after weed emergence, fall or spring depending on weed species targeted.

Remarks Supplemental label. Apply as a broadcast or banded application, avoiding foliage, fruit, and desirable suckers. One application per year unless banding, then two applications area allowed with a maximum application of 4 oz/A on a broadcast basis. Apply when rain and cool temperatures are expected. Results are best if soil is moist at time of application and with 0.5 inch of rain or irrigation within 2 weeks after application. Postemergence control is best if weeds are small and an adjuvant is used. Preemergence and postemergence control of a number of grasses and summer annuals including puncturevine, dandelion, mallow, and quackgrass; postemergence partial suppression of yellow nutsedge. Preharvest interval is 7 days for pome fruit and 14 days for stone fruit and nuts.

Caution Trees must be established for 12 months. Avoid spray drift onto adjacent crops. Clean spray tank carefully. Minimize contact with fruit or foliage.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Sulfonylurea

sethoxydim (Poast)

Rate 0.28 to 0.47 lb ai/A (1.5 to 2.5 pints/A Poast)

Time Apply at optimum growth stage listed on the label.

Remarks Identify susceptible grasses and add 2 pints/A of a nonphytotoxic crop oil concentrate to improve leaf absorption. Control often is erratic on grasses stunted or stressed from drought, high temperatures, or low fertility. Resistant grasses include annual bluegrass and all fine fescues; quackgrass can be suppressed. Note maximum annual amounts per acre listed on label. Inhibits fatty acid production, cell membranes, and new growth.

Caution Preharvest interval is 14 days for apples and pears; 25 days for apricots, cherries (sweet and sour), nectarines, and peaches; 15 days for nuts.

Site of action Group 1: acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor

Chemical family Cyclohexanedione

TREE FRUITS AND NUTS—Green Sucker Control in Hazelnuts

2,4-D (Saber or Orchard Master)

Rate 0.7 to 0.95 lb ae/A (1.5 to 2 pints/A Saber); consult label

Time Apply in 100 gal/A water; add nonionic spreader-sticker. Apply to suckers 6 to 9 inches long.

Remarks Spray to runoff as needed, up to four times per year from April through August. Use large-orifice nozzles to reduce possible drift. Mimics natural plant hormones.

Caution Preharvest interval is 45 days. Grazing is prohibited.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Phenoxy acetic acid

carfentrazone-ethyl (Aim EC)

Rate 0.031 lb ai/A (2 fl oz/A Aim EC)

Time Direct spray to immature green suckers at base of tree.

Remarks Read label for additional options.

Caution Care must be taken not to allow spray mist to contact desirable fruit, foliage or green stem tissue. Do not apply more than 0.031 lb ai/A (2 fl oz/A Aim EC) per application. Do not apply more than 0.124 lb ai/A (7.9 fl oz/A ) per season.

Site of action Group 14: inhibits protoporphyrinogen oxidase

Chemical family Triazinone

glufosinate ammonium (Rely)

Rate 1 lb ai/A (4 quarts/A Rely)

Time Direct spray to cover all sucker foliage.

Remarks Split applications about 4 weeks apart to improve control.

Site of action Group 10: inhibits glutamine synthetase

Chemical family Phosphinic acid

paraquat (Gramoxone Max)

Rate 0.625 to 1 lb ai/A (2.5 to 4 pints/A Gramoxone)

Time Apply 3 to 4 times per season, when suckers are 6 to 9 inches long but before they become woody.

Remarks Add a nonionic surfactant or crop oil concentrate as label specifies, taking care to avoid anionic formulations that react in the tank to form insoluble precipitates. Direct spray toward green suckers at tree base. Acts on contact; absorbs energy produced by photosynthesis, forming peroxides that disrupt living cells.

Caution A restricted-use herbicide. Do not ingest or inhale spray mist. Wear protective face shields, respirators, and clothing. Do not allow spray to contact foliage or fruit. Avoid windy conditions and drift. Do not graze treated areas. Do not apply when nuts are on the ground. Do not exceed three postemergence directed applications per season for these crops. Preharvest interval is 14 days for peaches; 28 days for apricots, cherries, and nectarines.

Site of action Group 22: photosystem I electron diversion

Chemical family Bipyridilium

pyraflufen (Venue)

Rate 0.004 to 0.0053 lb ai/A (3 to 4 fl oz product/A)

Remarks Requires thorough coverage for good sucker control.

Caution Do not apply more than twice in one season. Avoid contact with desirable foliage, green bark, or fruit.

Site of action Group 14: protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor

Chemical family Phenylpyrazole

TREE FRUITS AND NUTS—Grass Suppression in Row Middles (chemical mowing)

glyphosate (numerous product names)

Rate Read label carefully for crops listed and geographic location.

Time Apply 6 to 8 oz/A to suppress (chemically mow) perennial grass covers between tree rows in orchards.

Remarks Use the 8 oz/A rate to treat tall (coarse) fescue, fine fescue, orchardgrass, or quackgrass covers. For best suppression of these species, add ammonium sulfate at 1.7 lb/10 gal of spray solution. Use the 6 oz/A rate, without ammonium sulfate, when treating Kentucky bluegrass covers. Apply treatments in 20 gal/A spray volumes to actively growing grass covers. For best spray distribution and coverage, use flat fan nozzles. Additional nonionic surfactant may be added at 0.5% concentration when using surfactants with at least 50% ai, or a 1% surfactant concentration for those with less than 50% ai. For best results, mow grass in spring for uniformity, then apply appropriate rate 3 or 4 days after mowing. Low rates will not adequately suppress broadleaf weeds such as dandelion or plantain. If broadleaf weeds infest more than 10% of ground cover, tank mix 2,4-D labeled for orchard use.

Caution Chemical mowing is not recommended if orchard weed management is primarily reliant on glyphosate. Low rates of glyphosate applied multiple times per year may significantly increase the chance of selecting glyphosate resistant populations. Do not treat grass covers under poor conditions such as drought stress (drip irrigation), disease, or insect damage; suppression may be poor.

Site of action Group 9: inhibits EPSP synthase

Chemical family None generally accepted

sethoxydim (Poast)

Rate 0.09 lb ai/A (0.5 pint/A Poast)

Time Apply to orchard floor middles one time only, to suppress growth.

Site of action Group 1: acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor

Chemical family Cyclohexanedione

2,4-D amine (Saber, Weed Rhap A-4D, or Dri-Clean Herbicide)

Rate 0.95 to 1.4 lb ae/A (2 to 3 pints/A Saber for stone fruits and nuts only); 3 pints/A for Weed Rhap A-4D)

Time Do not apply during bloom. Preferred timing is late autumn, after harvest but before first frost. Apply after irrigation rather than before, to avoid moving the herbicide into the root zone. Apply as a directed spray as needed to young, actively growing weeds in the prebud to early bud stage of growth.

Remarks Apples and pears: Minimize use in pears after fruit set due to possibility of early ripening. Apparently, Gala, Fuji, and Golden Delicious apples are more sensitive to 2,4-D than are other cultivars. Do not allow spray to contact pear leaves, fruit, tree trunks, or root suckers. Preharvest interval is 14 days. Stone fruits and nuts: 2,4-D can be applied up to twice per season. Preharvest interval is 40 days for stone fruits, 60 days for nuts. Application timing on other fruits and nuts excludes preharvest interval requirements. Mimics natural plant hormones.

Caution Avoid high pressures or other factors that can increase drift. Reduce possible root uptake by avoiding irrigation or rain within 10 days after application. Do not use on light, sandy, or bare soils. Do not use when temperatures exceed 90°F. Do not graze or feed cover crops from treated areas to livestock.

Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family Phenoxy acetic acid

TREE FRUITS AND NUTS—Abandoned orchards—Treating Unwanted Trees

triclopyr + 2,4-D (Crossbow)

Washington only

Rate Washington special local needs label only (WA-010038). Consult label for mixing and application rate instructions for basal application or hack-and-squirt methods.

Caution Do not replant susceptible broadleaf trees within 12 months of application.

Site of action (both) Group 4: synthetic auxin

Herbicide Effectiveness on Weeds in Tree Fruits

Soil-applied Herbicides

Postemergent Herbicides

Weed Family1

simazine

diuron

terbacil (Sinbar)

norflurazon (Solicam)

dichlobenil (Casoron)

oryzalin (Surflan)

napropamide (Devrinol)

pronamide (Kerb)

flumioxazin (Chateau)

paraquat

oxyfluorfen (Goal)

glyphosate

2,4-D

fluazifop (Fusilade)

sethoxydim (Poast)

Amaranth or Pigweed

Amaranth, Powell Amaranthus powellii

G

G

F

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

P

P

Pigweed, redroot Amaranthus retroflexus

G

G

F

F

G

G

G

P

G

G

G

G

G

P

P

Pigweed, tumble Amaranthus graecizans

G

G

F

G

G

G

G

G

G

P

P

Buckwheat

Buckwheat, wild Polygonum convolvulus

G

G

G

G

P

G

G

G

G

P

P

Dock, broadleaf (P)Rumex obtusifolius

F*

G*

G

P

P

+

G

G

P

P

Dock, curly (P) Rumex crispus

G

F

P

F

P

P

Knotweed, prostrate

Polygonum aviculare

G

F

G

G

G

G

F

F

F

+

F

G

F

P

P

Ladysthumb Polygonum persicaria

F

F

G

F

G

F

P

F

G

F

G

G

P

P

Sorrel, red (P) Rumex acetosella

G*

G*

G

F

P

+

G*

G

P

P

Caltrop

(Puncturevine) Tribulus terrestris

P

P

F

G

G

F

F

F

G

G

G

P

P

Carrot

Carrot, wild (B) Daucus carota

G

G

G

G

G

P

F

G

P

G

G

P

P

Composite

Chicory (P) Cichorium intybus

G

P

P

P

Cocklebur, broadleaf Xanthium strumarium

F

P

G*

G

G

P

P

Cudweed, low Gnaphalium uliginosum

G

P

G

G

P

P

Dandelion, common (P)Taraxacum officinale

*

P

F

*

G

P

*

P

+

G*

G

G

P

P

Dandelion, false (Spotted catsear) (P)Hypochaeris radicata

*

P

P

*

G

P

P

P

+

G*

G

F

P

P

Devil’s beggarsticks Bidens frondosa

G

F

G

P

P

P

Goldenrod, western (P)Solidago occidentalis

P

P

P

P

P

P

G

P

P

Groundsel, common Senecio vulgaris

F

F

G

P

G

P

G

G

G

G

G

P

P

Hawkbit, hairy (P) Leontodon nudicaulis

*

*

*

*

G

*

*

P

+

G

P

P

P

Hawksbeard, bristly Crepis setosa

G

G

P

G

G

G

G

P

P

P

Horseweed (P) Conyza canadensis

F

P

F

P

F

P

G

+

P

G

P

P

Knapweed, diffuse Centaurea diffusa

G

P

G

G

P

P

Mayweed or dog fennel Anthemis cotula

G

G

G

P

P

*

F

G

F

P

P

Pineappleweed Matricaria matricarioide

G

G

G

P

G

P

*

F

G

F

P

P

Prickly lettuce Lactuca serriola

G

G

G

P

G

P

G

G

G

G

G

P

P

Ragweed, common Ambrosia artemisiifolia

G

P

G

*

G

G

P

P

Ragwort, tansy (B) Senecio jacobaea

P

P

G

P

P

P

P

*

G

G

P

P

Salsify, western (B) Tragopogon dubius

P

P

P

P

P

F

P

G

P

P

Sowthistle, annual Sonchus oleraceus

F

G

G

P

G

P

G

G

G

G

P

P

Sowthistle, spiny Sonchus asper

F

G

G

P

G

P

G

G

P

P

Thistle, bull (B) Cirsium vulgare

G

F

G

P

P

F*

G

G

P

P

Thistle, Canada (P)Cirsium arvense

P

P

G

P

P

P

P

+

G

F

P

P

Evening Primrose

Fireweed (P) Epilobium angustifolium

G

G

F

P

F

G

G

G

F

P

P

Figwort

Mullein, common (B)Verbascum thapsus

P

G

P

F

F

F

P

P

Speedwell, birdseye Veronica persica

P

F

G

P

G

G

F

P

P

Speedwell, creeping Veronica filiformis

F

P

G

F

P

P

Speedwell, ivyleaf Veronica hederaefolia

P

F

F

P

G

G

G

F

P

P

Toadflax, yellow (P) Linaria vulgaris

P

P

P

P

p

p

p

p

p

Geranium

Filaree, redstem Erodium cicutarium

P

F

G

G

G

P

G

P

F

F

G

G

G

P

P

Geranium, cutleaf Geranium dissectum

G

G

G

G

P

F

G

G

F

P

P

Geranium, dovefoot Geranium molle

G

G

G

G

P

F

G

F

G

P

P

P

Goosefoot

Kochia Kochia scoparia

F

G

G

P

P

F

F

G

G

F

P

P

Lambsquarters, common Chenopodium album

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

F

G

F

F

G

G

P

P

Thistle, Russian Salsola kali

P

F

G

G

F

P

P

G

F

G

G

F

P

P

Grass, annual

Barnyardgrass Echinochloa crus-galli

F

G

F

G

G

G

F-G

P

P

G

P

G

P

G

G

Bluegrass, annual Poa annua

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

F

G

F*

G

P

P

P

Brome, downy Bromus tectorum

G

P

G

G

G

G

F-G

G

G

F#

G

P

G

G

Brome, ripgut Bromus rigidus

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

F#

G

P

Bromes, annual Bromus spp.

G

G

G

G

G

F#

G

P

G

G

Crabgrass Digitaria spp.

P-F

F-G

G

F

G

G

P

P

G

G

P

G

G

Foxtail, green Setaria viridis

P-F

F

F

F

G

G

F

F

G

F#

G

P

G

G

Foxtail, yellow Setaria glauca

F

F

G

G

G

F

G

F#

G

P

G

G

Johnsongrass seedlings Sorghum halepense

G

P

G

G

P

G

G

Oat, wild Avena fatua

F

P

G

G

F

P

G

G

P

G

G#

G

P

G

G

Ryegrass, annual or Italian Lolium multiflorum

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

P

G

G#

G

P

F-G

G

Sandbur, longspine Cenchrus longispinus

F

F

F

F

G

G

F

G

P

Velvetgrass Holcus lanatus

P

G

G

P

G

F

G

P

F-G

G

Witchgrass Panicum capillare

P

G

G

G

G

F

F

G

G

P

G

G

Grass, perennial

Bentgrass Agrostis tenuis

*

*

F*

*

G

*

*

G

+

G

P

G

G

Bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon

P

P

P

P

P

P

G

G

P

G

F-G

Fescue, red creeping Festuca rubra

F

G

G

P

P

P

Quackgrass Elytrigia repens

P

P

F

P

G

P

P

G

F

P

G

P

F

P

Madder

Bedstraw, catchweed Galium aparine

P

P

G

F

P

P

G*

P

P

P

Bedstraw, corn Galium tricorne

G

P

P

P

Mallow

Mallow, common Malva neglecta

F

P

G

F

F

P

G

P

P

F

F

P

P

Mint

Deadnettle, red Lamium purpureum

G

G

F

G

G

P

F

G

G

G

F

P

P

Henbit Lamium amplexicaule

G

G

F

G

G

F

P

F

G

G

G

F

P

P

Morningglory

Bindweed, field (P)Convolvulus arvensis

P

P

P

P-F

P

P

P

+

+

F-G

F

P

P

Mustard

Bittercress, little Cardamine oligosperma

G

G

G

P

G

P

G

G

G

G

G

P

P

Cress, hoary (P) Cardaria draba

*

*

G

F

P

P

Flixweed Descurainia sophia

G

G

P

F

F#

F

G

P

P

Mustard, hedge Sisymbrium officinale

*

*

G

F-G

P

F#

G

F

G

G

P

P

Mustard, wild Brassica kaber

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

F#

G

G

F

G

G

P

P

Shepherdspurse Capsella bursa-pastoris

G

G

G

G

G

P

P

F#

G

G

P

G

G

P

P

Nightshade

Nightshade, black Solanum nigrum

G

G

G

G

G

P

P

F#

E

G

G

G

G

P

P

Nightshade, cutleaf Solanum triflorum

G

G

G

F#

E

G

G

G

G

P

P

Nightshade, hairy Solanum sarrachoides

G

G

G

G

G

P

P

F#

E

G

G

G

G

P

P

Pink

Chickweed, common Stellaria media

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

P

G

G

P

P

Chickweed, mouseear Cerastium vulgatum

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

P

G

F

P

P

Spurry, corn Spergula arvensis

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

P

P

P

Plantaginaceae

Plantain, broadleaf (P)Plantago major

G

P

G

G

P

G

F*

G

G

P

P

Plantain, buckhorn (P) Plantago lanceolata

G

P

G

G

P

G

F*

G

G

P

P

Purslane

Minerslettuce Montia perfoliata

G

G

G

G

G

P

G

G

G

G

P

P

Purslane, common Portulaca oleracea

G

G

G

F

G

G

G

F

E

G

G

G

F

P

P

Rose

Blackberry, evergreen (P) Rubus laciniatus

P

P

F

P

P

P

P

P

+

P

G

F

P

P

Blackberry, Himalaya (P)Rubus procerus

P

P

F

P

P

P

P

P

+

P

G

F

P

P

Blackberry, trailing (P)Rubus vitifolius

P

P

F

P

P

P

P

P

+

P

G

F

P

P

Sedge

Nutsedge, yellow (P) Cyperus esculentus

P

P

P

F

G

P

P

P

P

F

P

F

P-F

P

P

Spurge

Spurge, leafy (P)Euphorbia esula

G

P

P

P

P-F

P

P

Spurge, prostrate Euphorbia humistrata

P

P

G

F

G

F

P

G

G

G

F

P

P

St. Johnswort (P)Hypericum perforatum

P

P

G

P

P

+

G

F

P

P

Sumac

Poison-oak, Pacific (P) Toxicodendron diversilobum

P

P

G

P

+

G

F

P

P

Teasel

Teasel

Dipsacus sylvestris

G

G

G

G

P

P