Alkali bee-Stonebrood

Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus tamarii

Aspergillus fungi causes stonebrood disease in bees. Primary route of infection is by ingestion of the spores, their germination in the gut which causes invasive mycosis and host death. Both adult and larvae can be affected. It is a general saprophyte and opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised (due to pesticide exposure, lack of forage resources) hosts and reproduces by producing cleistothecia and asexual conidia.

For more information:

S.E.F. Evison, A.B. Jensen. 2018. The biology and prevalence of fungal diseases in managed and wild bees, Current Opinion in Insect Science, Volume 26, pp. 105-113, ISSN 2214-5745, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2018.02.010.